Crystallography and internal order in minerals (space groups, unit cells, X-ray diffraction data). Bonding, mineral chemistry and solid solution (types of solid solution, calculation of mineral formulae and cation valency). Subsolidus reactions and defects in minerals (thermodynamic basis, defects, importance of subsolidus reactions). Classification and crystal structures of minerals. Mineralogical instrumentation and analysis. Major rock types and their classification. Mineralogical aspects of minerals processing.