Yearbooks

Programme: BCom

Code NQF level Faculty Duration Credits
07130222 NQF level:  07 Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences Minimum duration of study: 3 years Total credits: 409

Programme information

The programme is aimed at the training of students in the Economic and Management Sciences, but it does not lead to a specific vocational outcome. However, students are able to compile their own curricula with a view to work opportunities in all sectors.

Students who achieved 70% and above in English Home Language (an A or a B), and 80% and above in English First Additional Language (only an A) in the NSC (or equivalent) will be exempted from ALL 124 and therefore do not have to register and pass this module to complete their degrees. Students who achieved 69% and below in English Home Language (a C and below), and 79% and below in English First Additional Language (a B and below) have to register for ALL 124 and pass this module in order to be awarded their degrees.

Admission requirements

  • The following persons will be considered for admission: candidates who are in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required Grade 12 certificate with university endorsement; candidates who are graduates from another tertiary institution or have been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution; and candidates who are graduates of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.
  • Life Orientation is excluded when calculating the APS.

Minimum requirements

Achievement level

English Home Language or English First Additional Language

Mathematics

APS

NSC/IEB

AS Level

NSC/IEB

AS Level

5

C

4

D

30

* Cambridge A level candidates who obtained at least a D in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. International Baccalaureate (IB) HL candidates who obtained at least a 4 in the required subjects, will be considered for admission.

Additional requirements

  1. General Regulations G.1 to G.15 (with the exception of Regulation G.11.2(c)) apply to a bachelor's degree.
  2. A student may not take more than the prescribed number of modules per semester unless the Dean decides otherwise.
  3. A student may take a module not listed as an elective module only if the prior approval of the Dean has been obtained.
  4. A student who is in possession of a bachelor's degree may not present any modules passed for that degree for another field of specialisation or degree in this Faculty. (See General Regulations G.8 and G.9)
  5. A module already passed may only be repeated with the approval of the Dean.
  6. A module passed may not be taken into account for more than one degree or field of specialisation.
  7. It remains the student's responsibility to ascertain, prior to registration, whether all the modules he/she intends taking can be accommodated in the class, test and examination timetables.
  8. The Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences supports an outcomes-based education system and places a high premium on the development of specific academic competences. Class attendance in all modules and for the full duration of all programmes is therefore compulsory for all students.
  9. The Dean has the right of authorisation regarding matters not provided for in the General Regulations or the Faculty Regulations.

Other programme-specific information

Please note:

  • If BER 210 and BER 220 are chosen as core modules at 200-level, the elective modules will total 40 credits and the core modules 93 credits at 100-level.
  • If WTW or WST is chosen as core modules, the credits will be higher.
  • If FRK 211 and FRK 221 are chosen, INF 281 (3 additional credits) is compulsory.
  • FRK 122 is a terminating module. If FRK 122 is selected, a candidate will not be able to continue with Financial Accounting at the 200- and 300- level. Also note that FRK 121 may be a prerequisite for a number of other modules (eg BEL 200) and it is the responsibility of the candidate to ensure that he/she makes the appropriate choice between FRK 121 and 122.
  • FBS 212 and 222 are terminating modules. Candidates will not be able to continue with Financial management at 300-level.
  • BER 210 and 220 may not be included in the same curriculum as KRG 110, 120.
  • Mathematical statistics and Mathematics are not mutually exclusive and may be taken simultaneously. WTW 114, 126, 128, 211, 218 must be taken if WST will be taken up to 300-level.
  • OBS 310 may not be included in the same curriculum as BDO 319, 329 for degree purposes.
  • Informatics 281 (INF 281) (with 3 additional credits), is compulsory if Financial Accounting 211, 221 (FRK 211, 221) are chosen.

Please consult the alphabetical list of modules for prerequisites of all applicable modules.

Specialisation modules: Any prescribed modules at 300-level which is preceded by the appropriate modules at 200-level.

"Major subject"
To be considered a "major subject" the equivalent of four 14-week modules, including two at 300-level, must be passed provided that:

  • a module passed at 300-level shall only be recognised for degree purposes if the corresponding prescribed module(s) at 200-level has/have been passed, unless the Dean decides otherwise;
  • the following modules which are offered at 300-level only, are also considered "major subjects": Labour law 311 (ABR 311), Labour relations 320 (ABV 320), and International business management 359 and 369 (OBS 359 and 369); and
  • only two 14-week modules, or the equivalent thereof, that are not preceded by the 100- and  200-level modules, may be taken for degree purposes. In other words, at least four 14-week modules must be taken at 300-level that are preceded by the 100- and 200-level, except for modules offered on 200- and 300-level only.

It is thus the responsibility of students to ensure before registration, that their curricula comply with all the requirements of the applicable regulations.

Promotion to next study year

According to General Regulation G.3 students have to comply with certain requirements as set by the Faculty Board.

  1. A student must pass at least 4 core semester or 2 core year modules to be admitted to the subsequent year of study.
  2. If a student has passed less than the required minimum of 4 core semester or 2 core year modules, he/she will not be readmitted to the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Such a student may apply in writing to the Faculty's Admissions Committee to be readmitted conditionally – with the proviso that the Admissions Committee may set further conditions with regards to the student's academic progress. The Faculty's Admissions Committee may deny a student's application for readmission.
  3. If a student has been readmitted conditionally, his/her academic progress will be monitored after the first semester examinations to determine whether he/she has complied with the requirements set by the Admissions Committee. If not, his/her studies will be suspended.
  4. A student whose studies have been suspended because of his/her poor academic performance has the right to appeal against the decision of the Faculty's Admissions Committee.
  5. A student may be refused promotion to a subsequent year of study if the prescribed tuition fees are not paid.
  6. A student may be refused admission to the examination, or promotion to a subsequent year of study or promotion in a module (if applicable) if he/ she fails to fulfil the attendance requirements. Class attendance in all modules and for the full duration of all programmes is compulsory for all students.

Pass with distinction

  1. A degree may be awarded with distinction provided the candidate meets the following criteria:
  1. Completes the degree within three years;
  2. Obtains a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 75%;
  3. Repeated passed modules will not be considered. The initial pass mark of module will be used when calculating the GPA.
  1. A degree will only be awarded with distinction to transferees from other degrees in the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, other faculties and from other universities who still complete their bachelor degrees within three years (including the years registered for the other degree and credits transferred and recognised).
  2. The GPA will be not be rounded up to a whole number.
  3. Exceptional cases will be considered by the Dean.

General information

Minimum requirements for bachelor's degrees; semester and year modules; new regulations

  1. Students who commenced their studies before 2015 must complete the programme in terms of the curriculum of the year in which they commenced their studies, or in terms of the curriculum of the year in which they switched to their current field of specialisation. Students who prefer to do so may, however, apply to change over to the latest curriculum, but then they should comply with all the requirements thereof and they may not revert to the regulations of an earlier year.
  2. Students who are registering for a degree programme for the first time from 2015 onward must take the modules indicated under the particular field of specialisation.

Minimum credits: 145

(STK 113,123 or STK 110 & STK 120)  and (WST 111 & WST 121 cannot be included in the same curriculum. Choose only one set.

Fundamental modules

Core modules

  • Module content:

    This module deals with the core principles of economics. A distinction between macroeconomics and microeconomics is made. A discussion of the market system and circular flow of goods, services and money is followed by a section dealing with microeconomic principles, including demand and supply analysis, consumer behaviour and utility maximisation, production and the costs thereof, and the different market models and firm behaviour. Labour market institutions and issues, wage determination, as well as income inequality and poverty are also addressed. A section of money, banking, interest rates and monetary policy concludes the course.

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  • Module content:

    This module deals with the core principles of economics, especially macroeconomic measurement the private and public sectors of the South African economy receive attention, while basic macroeconomic relationships and the measurement of domestic output and national income are discussed. Aggregate demand and supply analysis stands core to this course which is also used to introduce students to the analysis of economic growth, unemployment and inflation. The microeconomics of government is addressed in a separate section, followed by a section on international economics, focusing on international trade, exchange rates and the balance of payments. The economics of developing countries and South Africa in the global economy conclude the course.

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  • Module content:

    The nature and function of accounting; the development of accounting; financial position; financial result; the recording process; processing of accounting data; treatment of VAT; elementary income statement and balance sheet; flow of documents; accounting systems; introduction to internal control and internal control measures; bank reconciliations; control accounts; adjustments; financial statements of a sole proprietorship; the accounting framework.

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  • Module content:

    Property, plant and equipment; intangible assets; inventories; liabilities; presentation of financial statements; enterprises without profit motive; partnerships; companies; close corporations; cash flow statements; analysis and interpretation of financial statements.

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  • Module content:

    Budgeting, payroll accounting, taxation – income tax and an introduction to other types of taxes, credit and the new Credit Act, insurance, accounting for inventories (focus on inventory and the accounting entries, not calculations), interpretation of financial statements.

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  • Module content:

    Computer processing of accounting information.

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  • Module content:

    General introduction.
    General principles of the law of contract: introduction to the law of contract; consensus; contractual capacity; legality and physical possibility of performance; formalities; parties to the contract; conditions and related legal concepts; special terms and the interpretation of contracts; breach of contract and the termination of the contractual relationship.

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  • Module content:

    Law of purchase and sale; law of lease; credit agreements; law of agency; law of security.

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  • Module content:

    The entrepreneurial mind-set; managers and managing; values, attitudes, emotions, and culture: the manager as a person; ethics and social responsibility; decision making; leadership and responsible leadership; effective groups and teams; managing organizational structure and culture inclusive of the different functions of a generic organisation and how they interact (marketing; finance; operations; human resources and general management); contextualising Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in each of the topics.

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  • Module content:

    Value chain management: functional strategies for competitive advantage; human resource management; managing diverse employees in a multicultural environment; motivation and performance; using advanced information technology to increase performance; production and operations management; financial management; corporate entrepreneurship.

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  • Module content:

    Descriptive statistics:
    Sampling and the collection of data; frequency distributions and graphical representations. Descriptive measures of location and dispersion.
    Probability and inference:
    Introductory probability theory and theoretical distributions. Sampling distributions. Estimation theory and hypothesis testing of sampling averages and proportions (one and two-sample cases). Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.

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  • Module content:

    *On its own, STK 113 and 123 will not be recognised for degree purposes, but exemption will be granted for STK 110.
    Data operations and transformations:
    Introductory concepts, the role of statistic, various types of data and the number system. Concepts underlying linear, quadratic, exponential, hyperbolic, logarithmic transformations of quantitative data, graphical representations, solving of equations, interpretations. Determining linear equations in practical situations. Characteristics of logarithmic functions. The relationship between the exponential and logarithmic functions in economic and related problems. Systems of equations in equilibrium. Additional concepts relating to data processing, functions and inverse functions, sigma notation, factorial notation, sequences and series, inequalities (strong, weak, absolute, conditional, double) and absolute values.
    Descriptive statistics – Univariate:
    Sampling and the collection of data, frequency distributions and graphical representations. Descriptive measures of location and dispersion. Introductory probability theory.  Identification, use, evaluation and interpretation of statistical computer packages and statistical techniques.
    The weekly one hour practical is presented during the last seven weeks of the semester.

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  • Module content:

    Students can only get credit for one of the following two modules: STK 120 or STK 121.
    Analysis of variance, categorical data analysis, distribution-free methods, curve fitting, regression and correlation, the analysis of time series and indices. Statistical and economic applications of quantitative techniques: Systems of linear equations: solving and application. Optimisation, linear functions, non-linear functions. Marginal and total functions. Stochastic and deterministic variables in statistical and economic context: producers' and consumers' surplus. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are illustrated using simulation within a data science framework.
    This module is also presented as STK 121, an anti-semester module. This is a terminating module. 

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  • Module content:

    *On its own, STK 113 and 123 will not be recognized for degree purposes, but exemption will be granted for STK 110.
    Optimisation techniques with economic applications: Data transformations and relationships with economic applications, operations and rules, linear, quadratic, exponential, hyperbolic and logarithmic functions; systems of equations in equilibrium, system of linear inequalities, solving of linear programming problems by means of the graphical and extreme point methods. Applications of differentiation and integration in statistic and economic related problems: the limit of a function, continuity, rate of change, the derivative of a function, differentiation rules, higher order derivatives, optimisation techniques, the area under a curve and applications of definite integrals. Probability and inference: Theoretical distributions. Sampling distributions.  Estimation theory and hypothesis testing of sampling averages and proportions (one-sample and two-sample cases). Identification, use, evaluation and interpretation of statistical computer packages and statistical techniques. The weekly one hour practical is presented during the last seven weeks of the semester.

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  • Module content:

    Characterisation of a set of measurements: Graphical and numerical methods. Random sampling. Probability theory. Discrete and continuous random variables. Probability distributions. Generating functions and moments.

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  • Module content:

    Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Statistical inference: Point and interval estimation. Hypothesis testing with applications in one and two-sample cases. Introductory methods for: Linear regression and correlation, analysis of variance, categorical data analysis and non-parametric statistics.  Identification, use, evaluation and interpretation of statistical computer packages and statistical techniques.

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Elective modules

  • Module content:

    This module provides an overview of the fundamentals of marketing by considering the exchange process, customer value, marketing research and the development of a marketing plan. It also addresses the marketing mix elements with specific focus on the seven service marketing elements namely the service product, physical evidence, people, process, distribution, pricing and integrated marketing communication.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to information systems, information systems in organisations, hardware: input, processing, output, software: systems and application software, organisation of data and information, telecommunications and networks, the Internet and Intranet. Transaction processing systems, management information systems, decision support systems, information systems in business and society, systems analysis, systems design, implementation, maintenance and revision.

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  • Module content:

    This module in public administration is designed specifically to assist students in understanding the role of public administration in a modern state, the unique characteristics of public administration, the schools and approaches in public administration and introducing the various generic administrative functions. The discipline of public administration has developed rapidly and by implication, has changed and shifted its paradigm over the years. The purpose of this module is to introduce public administration to the student as a field of study that makes a significant contribution to the effective administration and management of government institutions.

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  • Module content:

    This module in public administration will introduce the constitutional framework pertaining to public administration. The South African system of government, the functions, role and powers of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government as well as the functioning of the three spheres of government will be discussed. The module will enable the student to understand how and where public administration is practiced.

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  • Module content:

    *This module serves as preparation for students majoring in Mathematics (including all students who intend to enrol for WTW 218 and WTW 220). Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 114, WTW 158, WTW 134, WTW 165.
    Functions, limits and continuity. Differential calculus of single variable functions, rate of change, graph sketching, applications. The mean value theorem, the rule of L'Hospital. Definite and indefinite integrals, evaluating definite integrals using anti-derivatives, the substitution rule.

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree:
    WTW 124, WTW 146, WTW 148 and WTW 164. This module serves as preparation for students majoring in Mathematics (including all students who intend to enrol for WTW 218, WTW 211 and WTW 220).

    The vector space Rn, vector algebra with applications to lines and planes, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, determinants. Complex numbers and factorisation of polynomials. Integration techniques and applications of integration. The formal definition of a limit. The fundamental theorem of Calculus and applications. Vector functions and quadratic curves. 

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 134, WTW 165, WTW 114, WTW 158. WTW 134 does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level and is intended for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only. WTW 134 is offered as WTW 165 in the second semester only to students who have applied in the first semester of the current year for the approximately 65 MBChB, or the 5-6 BChD places becoming available in the second semester and who were therefore enrolled for MGW 112 in the first semester of the current year. 
    Functions, derivatives, interpretation of the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, interpretation of the definite integral, applications of integration. Matrices, solutions of systems of equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree:
    WTW 124, WTW 146 and WTW 164. The module WTW 146 is designed for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only and does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level.

    Vector algebra, lines and planes, matrix algebra, solution of systems of equations, determinants. Complex numbers and polynomial equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree:
    WTW 124, WTW 148 and WTW 164. The module WTW 148 is designed for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only and does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level.

    Integration techniques. Modelling with differential equations. Functions of several variables, partial derivatives, optimisation. Numerical techniques. All topics are studied in the context of applications.

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Minimum credits: 140

(STK 113,123 or STK 110 & STK 120)  and (WST 111 & WST 121 cannot be included in the same curriculum. Choose only one set.

Fundamental modules

  • Module content:

    In this module students are equipped with an understanding of the moral issues influencing human agency in economic and political contexts. In particular philosophy equips students with analytical reasoning skills necessary to understand and solve complex moral problems related to economic and political decision making. We demonstrate to students how the biggest questions concerning the socio-economic aspects of our lives can be broken down and illuminated through reasoned debate. Examples of themes which may be covered in the module include justice and the common good, a moral consideration of the nature and role of economic markets on society, issues concerning justice and equality, and dilemmas of loyalty. The works of philosophers covered may for instance include that of Aristotle, Locke, Bentham, Mill, Kant, Rawls, Friedman, Nozick, Bernstein, Dworkin, Sandel, Walzer, and MacIntyre.

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Core modules

  • Module content:

    Basic principles of law of contract. Law of sales, credit agreements, lease.

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  • Module content:

    Labour law. Aspects of security law. Law of insolvency. Entrepreneurial law; company law, law concerning close corporations. Law of partnerships.

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  • Module content:

    *Module content will be adapted in accordance with the appropriate degree programme. Only one of KOB 281– 284 may be taken as a module where necessary for a programme.

    Applied business communication skills

    Acquiring basic business communication skills will enhance the capabilities of employees, managers and leaders in the business environment. An overview of applied skills on the intrapersonal, dyadic, interpersonal, group (team), organisational, public and mass communication contexts is provided. The practical part of the module (for example, the writing of business reports and presentation skills) concentrates on the performance dimensions of these skills as applied to particular professions.

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Elective modules

  • Module content:

    *Only for BCom / BAdmin students

    Human development and personality
    This module consists of a discussion of the life span and important periods in human development with emphasis on their meaning in the work context.  With regard to personality, the following themes will be addressed:  the cultural context of personality, its formation and determinants of personality; personality as determinant of behaviour as well as the development and maintenance of self-image.  Attention will be given to the basic methods of personality measuring and personality assessment.

    Motivation and employee well-being
    One of the many factors that form part of individual processes is Motivation and Emotion. An understanding of individual processes will contribute to an understanding of how and why employees perform in their workplaces. The first part of this semester course aims to introduce the student to the foundational theories of motivation and emotion. The second part of this semester course is concerned with the recognition and classification of psychological disorders and the management and promotion of psychological well-being in organisations. A positive view of psychological health aims at facilitating people’s inner resources or strengths and resiliencies so that they stay healthy and cope effectively.

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  • Module content:

    *Only for BCom / BAdmin students

    Group behaviour and leadership
    This module will focus on organisational behaviour with specific reference to the principles of group behaviour and the role of work teams in the organisation. Particular attention will be paid to group development, group interaction, group structures, group processes and the promotion of team performance in the organisation. Leadership and the effect of power and politics in the organisation will be studied. The function of leadership in individual, group and task-oriented behaviour will also be addressed.

    Organisational behaviour
    The behavioural basis for organisational structuring and organisation design will be addressed. This will include organisational culture as an important facet in any organisation. The dynamics and approaches to organisational change will be addressed with specific reference to the role of change agents, resistance to change and organisational development with a practical discussion of the contemporary problems of organisational change, personnel turnover, fatigue, boredom, absenteeism, conflict accidents.

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  • Module content:

    *Only for BCom / BAdmin students

    Employee health and ergonomics

    This section focuses on actual and important aspects of safety and health management in organisations, as well as the nature and role of ergonomics therein. These aspects are theoretically and practically covered, providing the student with the knowledge and skills required in the organisational psychology and human resource management field.

    Workforce diversity

    This section will focus on the development of sensitivity towards a diverse employee corps and the development of mutual respect and tolerance between individuals and groups in any organisation. Particular attention will be given to the prerequisites for the effective implementation of a diversity management programme in an organisation.

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  • Module content:

    In this module an introduction to taxation as a discipline in the South African tax environment is provided. The income tax concepts covered in this module are gross income, special inclusions, exempt income, general deductions, special deductions, prohibited deductions and allowed assessed losses. The implications of a capital gains tax event, specific sections of the Income Tax Act applicable on individuals as well as fringe benefits and specific allowances for individuals are discussed. Concepts such as the prepaid tax system, tax implications of donations tax events as well as the tax implications of a deceased person will be covered. Finally an introduction to the basic principles of VAT is included. 

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  • Module content:

    Internal and external influencing factors of consumer behaviour, the consumer's decision process and application fields of consumer behaviour, consumerisms and social responsibility, buying behaviour of consumers in both product and service related industries, consumer psychology and the influence thereof on buying behaviour, psychology of pricing, influencing factors in consumer buying behaviour, the impact of various forms of marketing communication on buying behaviour.

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  • Module content:

    Integrated brand communications approach, marketing communication planning, objectives and budgets for integrated marketing communications, principles and strategising of marketing communication elements, new media, the brand name communication process, marketing metrics and evaluation for marketing communication effectiveness.

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  • Module content:

    Macroeconomics
    From Wall and Bay Street to Diagonal Street: a thorough understanding of the mechanisms and theories explaining the workings of the economy is essential. Macroeconomic insight is provided on the real market, the money market, two market equilibrium, monetarism, growth theory, cyclical analysis, inflation, Keynesian general equilibrium analysis and fiscal and monetary policy issues.

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  • Module content:

    Microeconomics
    Microeconomic insight is provided into: consumer and producer theory, general microeconomic equilibrium, Pareto-optimality and optimality of the price mechanism, welfare economics, market forms and the production structure of South Africa. Statistic and econometric analysis of microeconomic issues.

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  • Module content:

    Macroeconomics
    Application of the principles learned in EKN 214 on the world we live in. We look at international markets and dynamic macroeconomic models, and familiarise the students with the current macroeconomic policy debates. We also take a look at the latest macroeconomic research in the world. The course includes topics of the mathematical and econometric analysis of macroeconomic issues.

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  • Module content:

    Microeconomics
    From general equilibrium and economic welfare to uncertainty and asymmetric information. In this module we apply the principles learned in EKN 224 on the world around us by looking at the microeconomic principles of labour and capital markets, as well as reasons why the free market system could fail. We touch on the government’s role in market failures. The course includes topics of the mathematical and econometric analysis of microeconomic issues.

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  • Module content:

    Role and environment of managerial finance. Financial statement analysis. Time value of money. Risk and return. Working capital management. Interest and valuations (bonds and shares).

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to management accounting. Cost terms, concepts and classifications. Job-order costing. Cost behaviour. Variable versus absorption costing. Cost-volume profit relationships. Budgeting. Activity based costing. Cash flow and financial planning. 

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  • Module content:

    Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Companies Act, the Framework and Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice relating to the following: presentation of financial statements; revenue; investments; provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets; events after the balance sheet date; inventories; income taxes; leases; property, plant and equipment; impairment of assets; intangible assets; investment property, changes in accounting estimates and errors; introduction to financial instruments.

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  • Module content:

    Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice relating to the following: employee benefits; the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates; accounting policies; earnings per share; cash flow statements; interests in joint ventures. Branch accounting. Introduction to consolidations, including basic consolidation techniques for both wholly-owned and partly-owned subsidiaries. Introduction to public sector accounting.

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  • Module content:

    Database design: the relational model, structured query language (SQL), entity relationship modelling, normalisation, database development life cycle; practical introduction to database design. Databases: advanced entity relationship modelling and normalisation, object-oriented databases, database development life cycle, advanced practical database design.

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  • Module content:

    An overview of systems infrastructure and integration.

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  • Module content:

    Database management: transaction management, concurrent processes, recovery, database administration: new developments: distributed databases, client-server databases: practical implementation of databases.

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  • Module content:

    Logistics management
    The role of logistics in an enterprise; definition and scope of customer service; electronic and other logistics information systems; inventory management; materials management with special reference to Japanese systems; management of the supply chain. Methods of transport and transport costs; types and costs of warehousing; electronic aids in materials handling; cost and price determination of purchases; organising for logistics management; methods for improving logistics performance.

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  • Module content:

    Project management and negotiations:
    Introduction Project management concepts; needs identification; the project, the project manager and the project team; types of project organisations; project communication and documentation. Planning and control: planning, scheduling and schedule control of projects; resource considerations and allocations; cost planning and performance evaluation.
    Negotiation and collective bargaining: The nature of negotiation; preparation for negotiation; negotiating for purposes of climate creation; persuasive communication; handling conflict and aggression; specialised negotiation and collective bargaining in the South African context.

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  • Module content:

    This module in public administration constitutes an in-depth analysis of the generic administrative functions, including, policy making, organising, financing, staffing and control. Students will thus be equipped with knowledge and skills related to government strategic planning, policy-making and decision-making, budgeting, public procurement, human resource management functions and employment legislation impacting on human resources within public organisations.

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  • Module content:

    This module in public administration introduces the student to the process of planning, executing and evaluating research in the public sector. Students will be enabled to identify, plan, execute and present a research project. This is a service learning module and as such students will be expected to complete approximately 15 hours service learning and submit a portfolio as part of their formal assessment.

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  • Module content:

    Statistical problem solving. Causality, experimental and observational data. Probability theory. Multivariate random variables. Discrete and continuous probability distributions. Stochastic representations. Measures of association. Expected values and conditional expectation. Simulation techniques. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.

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  • Module content:

    Multivariate probability distributions. Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Frequentist and Bayesian inference. Statistical learning and decision theory. Simulation techniques enhancing statistical thinking. Supervised learning:  linear regression, estimation and inference. Non-parametric modelling. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical algorithms. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.

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  • Module content:

    Set theory. Probability measure functions. Random variables. Distribution functions. Probability mass functions. Density functions. Expected values. Moments. Moment generating functions. Special probability distributions: Bernoulli, binomial, hypergeometric, geometric, negative binomial, Poisson, Poisson process, discrete uniform, uniform, gamma,exponential, Weibull, Pareto, normal. Joint distributions: Multinomial, extended hypergeometric, joint continuous distributions. Marginal distributions. Independent random variables. Conditional distributions. Covariance, correlation. Conditional expected values. Transformation of random variables: Convolution formula. Order statistics. Stochastic convergence: Convergence in distribution. Central limit theorem. Practical applications. Practical statistical modelling and analysis using statistical computer packages and the interpretation of the output.

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  • Module content:

    Stochastic convergence: Asymptotic normal distributions, convergence in probability. Statistics and sampling distributions: Chi-squared distribution. Distribution of the sample mean and sample variance for random samples from a normal population. T-distribution. F-distribution. Beta distribution. Point estimation: Method of moments. Maximum likelihood estimation. Unbiased estimators. Uniform minimum variance unbiased estimators. Cramer-Rao inequality. Efficiency. Consistency. Asymptotic relative efficiency.
    Bayes estimators. Sufficient statistics. Completeness. The exponential class. Confidence intervals. Test of statistical hypotheses. Reliability and survival distributions. Practical applications. Practical statistical modelling and analysis using statistical computer packages and the interpretation of the output.

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  • Module content:

    This is an introduction to linear algebra on Rn. Matrices and linear equations, linear combinations and spans, linear independence, subspaces, basis and dimension, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, similarity and diagonalisation of matrices, linear transformations.

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  • Module content:

    Calculus of multivariable functions, directional derivatives. Extrema and Lagrange multipliers. Multiple integrals, polar, cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

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  • Module content:

    *This module is recommended as an elective only for students who intend to enrol for WTW 310 and/or WTW 320. Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 220 and WTW 224.

    Properties of real numbers. Analysis of sequences and series of real numbers. Power series and theorems of convergence. The Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem. The intermediate value theorem and analysis of real-valued functions on an interval. The Riemann integral: Existence and properties of the interval.

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    Abstract vector spaces, change of basis, matrix representation of linear transformations, orthogonality, diagonalisability of symmetric matrices, some applications.

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  • Module content:

    *This module does not lead to admission to WTW 310 or WTW 320. Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 220 and WTW 224.
    Sequences of real numbers: convergence and monotone sequences. Series of real numbers: convergence, integral test, comparison tests, alternating series, absolute convergence, ratio and root tests. Power series: representation of functions as power series, Taylor and Maclaurin series. Application to series solutions of differential equations. 

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for both WTW 162 and WTW 264 or both WTW 264 and WTW 286 for their degree.


    Theory and solution methods for ordinary differential equations and initial value problems: separable and linear first order equations, linear equations of higher order, systems of linear equations. Laplace transform.

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the modules for their degree: WTW 264, WTW 286
    Theory and solution methods for ordinary differential equations and initial value problems: separable and linear first-order equations, linear equations of higher order, systems of linear equations. Application to mathematical models.  Numerical methods applied to nonlinear systems.Qualitative analysis of linear systems.

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Minimum credits: 120

(STK 113,123 or STK 110 & STK 120)  and (WST 111 & WST 121 cannot be included in the same curriculum. Choose only one set.

Elective modules

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    Basic principles of the employment contract. Collective labour law. Statutory conditions of employment. Individual labour disputes. Collective labour disputes. Settlement procedures.

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    The theoretical basis of Labour Relations
    In this section the basic concepts, historical context and theoretical approaches to the field of labour relations will be discussed. The institutional framework in which labour relations operates, will be addressed with particular emphasis on the structural mechanisms and institutional processes. The service relationship that forms the basis of labour relations practices, will also be analysed.
    Labour Relations practice
    In this section students are taught the conceptual and practical skills related to practice aspects such as handling of grievances, disciplining, retrenchments, collective bargaining, industrial action and dispute resolution.

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  • Module content:

    Part 1: The Human Resource Management environment
    This section will provide the necessary know-how on the management of a Human Resource (HR) office. This particular section provides an introduction to Human Resource Management (HRM). The environment and foundations of HR will be covered. Various HR system standard and function models including the SA Board for People Practices HR standards model will be explained. The focus will move to emerging HR practices to ensure “competence” such as competency -based HRM. Day-to-day HRM practices are addressed such as HR office administration and technology (HR information systems). This is followed by specific HRM functions such as job design and analysis and the managing of compensation and benefits. Recruitment and section process to ensure the placing of qualified employees in jobs will be covered.

    Part 2: Human Resources Provision
    This section builds on the foundation provided in part 1. This module assists with having the right people in the right jobs at the right time through effective HR planning (HRP). This includes provision of theory which will assist HR managers to address strategy-linked HRP. To be able to ensure return on investment (ROI), organisations must ensure effective assessing and development of qualified employees by implementing performance management (PM) practices. This module will assist the HR professionals with theory related to internal staffing and career management practices. The section closes by discussing the role of HRM in virtual organisations as well as presenting international HRM theory that will assist the HR professional in the managing of international HRM.

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    Part 1: The theoretical environment of Human Resource Development
    This section focuses on the management of Human Resource Development (HRD) practices in organisations. The information will assist students to be able to understand the importance of education, training and development in South Africa and why education, training and development centres are important. Managing training and development will be addressed under the following headings: Managing training and development (T&D) in organisations, including contemporary issues in HRD. The focus moves to the education, training and development (ETD) environment in South Africa. The administration of T&D in organisations and the relevant learning theories and principles that will be applicable to adult learning in the workplace will be discussed. This section closes with a discussion on employee onboarding and orientation.
    Part 2: The practical environment of Human Resource Development
    This section will address learning related to determining training and development needs. Emphasis will be on aspects related to needs analysis, curriculum (programme) design and development, training interventions and presentation. The focus moves to learner assessment and programme evaluation.

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  • Module content:

    The purpose of the module is to enable the learner to calculate the value-added tax liability and to journalise transactions; calculate the normal tax liability (including the determination of taxable capital gains and assessed capital losses) of individuals, companies, estates and trusts,discuss tax principles on value-added tax and normal tax; and calculate and discuss provisional and employees' tax and to object against an assessment.

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  • Module content:

    The role of marketing research, the process of marketing research, interpretation of secondary research, qualitative research, survey research, observation, measurement and attitude scaling, questionnaire design, sampling design and sampling procedures, basic data analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, interpretation and reporting of results, research report writing.

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    Strategic issues in marketing, strategic marketing, strategic analysis (market analysis, customer analysis, competitor analysis and internal analysis), market strategies (competitive strategies, strategies in the product life cycle and relationship building strategies) and strategy implementation and control.

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    Public finance
    Role of government in the economy. Welfare economics and theory of optimality. Ways of correcting market failures. Government expenditure theories, models and programmes. Government revenue. Models on taxation, effects of taxation on the economy. Assessment of taxation from an optimality and efficiency point of view. South African perspective on public finance.

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    International trade/finance
    International economic insight is provided into international economic relations and history, theory of international trade, international capital movements, international trade politics, economic and customs unions and other forms or regional cooperation and integration, international monetary relations, foreign exchange markets, exchange rate issues and the balance of payments, as well as open economy macroeconomic issues.

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    Economic analyses
    Identification, collection and interpretation process of relevant economic data; the national accounts (i.e. income and production accounts, the national financial account, the balance of payments and input-output tables); economic growth; inflation; employment, unemployment, wages, productivity and income distribution; business cycles; financial indicators; fiscal indicators; social indicators; international comparisons; relationships between economic time series - regression analysis; long-term future studies and scenario analysis; overall assessment of the South African economy from 1994 onwards.

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    Economic policy and development: Capita select
    The course provides an introduction to growth economics and also to some topics on development economics. Firstly, historical evidence is covered and then the canonical Solow growth model and some of its empirical applications (human capital and convergence). Secondly, the new growth theory (the AK and the Romer models of endogenous growth) are covered. Some of the development topics to be covered include technology transfer, social infrastructure and natural resources.

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    Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) relating to the following: income taxes; property, plant and equipment; impairment; non-current assets held for sale; intangible assets; investment property; borrowing costs; leases; accounting policies; changes in accounting estimates and errors; segment reporting; certain aspects of financial instruments.

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    Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) relating to the following: the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates; earnings per share; related party disclosure; associates. Complex consolidation issues, including intra-group transactions; dividends; preference shares; revaluations; horizontal, vertical and mixed groups; insolvent subsidiaries; change of interest; consolidated cash flow statement.

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  • Module content:

    Strategy formulation: the deliberate strategy process of formulating a vision and mission statement, conducting internal and external environmental analyses and selecting appropriate strategies. It will enhance an understanding of the level of strategy formulation, gaining competitive advantage in your market place and thinking strategically.

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    Strategy execution: Strategic management implementation. The role of management in strategy implementation; budgets as instrument in the implementation process; leading processes of change within enterprises; supporting policies, procedures and information systems for implementation in the various functional areas; evaluation and control of implementation. South African case studies to create contextual relevance.

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  • Module content:

    This module in public administration is designed specifically to assist students to have a better understanding regarding the depth, origin and development of ethics in public service and administration. The emphasis here is on building responsive public servants whose duties and responsibilities do not only encourage the effective and efficient functioning of public organisations in an aim to facilitate better service delivery to all, but also apply ethical personal and organisational codes and standards in their daily operational activities. The purpose of this module is to enable the student to apply, synthesise and abstract theory into practice for a better public service of the future.

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  • Module content:

    This module on public administration is designed to broaden the view of students on the understanding of the origin and development of administrative systems. The emphasis is on the practical application of knowledge to problems of developing societies. Increasing global interdependence require scholarly interest in comparative public administration. A motivating force for comparative Public administration is the search for discovering regularities in administrative processes and behaviours throughout the human experience, irrespective of place and time.

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  • Module content:

    Supervised learning.  Linear and non-linear regression. Ordinary least squares and maximum likelihood estimation. Violations of the assumptions, residual analysis. Cross validation. Statistical inference. Bootstrap inference. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.

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  • Module content:

    Stationary and non-stationary univariate time series. Properties of ARIMA processes. Identification, estimation and diagnostic testing of a time series models. Forecasting. Multivariate time series. Supervised learning: introduction to generalised linear models.  Modelling of binary response variables, logistic regression. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.

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  • Module content:

    Multivariate statistical distributions: Moments of a distribution, moment generating functions, independence. Multivariate normal distribution: Conditional distributions, partial and multiple correlations. Distribution of quadratic forms in normal variables. Multivariate normal samples: Estimation of the mean vector and covariance matrix, estimation of correlation coefficients, distribution of the sample mean, sample covariance matrix. Principal component analysis.The linear model: Models of full rank, least squares estimators, test of hypotheses.The generalised linear model: Exponential family mean and variance, link functions, deviance and residual analysis, test statistics, log- linear and logit models. Practical applications: Practical statistical modelling and analysis using statistical computer packages and interpretation of the output.

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  • Module content:

    Definition of a stochastic process. Stationarity. Covariance stationary. Markov property. Random walk. Brownian motion. Markov chains. Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. Recurrent and transient states. First passage time. Occupation times. Markov jump processes. Poisson process. Birth and death processes. Structures of processes. Structure of the time-homogeneous Markov jump process. Applications in insurance. Practical statistical modelling, analysis and simulation using statistical computer packages and the interpretation of the output.

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  • Module content:

    Note: Only one of the modules WST 321 or STK 320 may be included in any study programme. 

    Stationary and non-stationary univariate time-series. Properties of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) processes. Identification, estimation and diagnostic testing of a time-series model. Forecasting. Multivariate time-series. Practical statistical modelling and analysis using statistical computer packages, including that of social responsibility phenomena.

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  • Module content:

    Bayes estimation. Loss distributions. Reinsurance. Risk models. Ruin theory. Credibility theory. Extreme value theory. Copulas. Practical statistical modelling and analysis using statistical computer packages.

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  • Module content:

    Topology of finite dimensional spaces: Open and closed sets, compactness, connectedness and completeness. Theorems of Bolzano-Weierstrass and Heine-Borel. Properties of continuous functions and applications. Integration theory for functions of one real variable. Sequences of functions.

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  • Module content:

    Mean variance portfolio theory. Market equilibrium models such as the capital asset pricing model. Factor models and arbitrage pricing theory. Measures of investment risk. Efficient market hypothesis. Stochastic models of security prices

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  • Module content:

    Group theory: Definition, examples, elementary properties, subgroups, permutation groups, isomorphism, order, cyclic groups, homomorphisms, factor groups. Ring theory: Definition, examples, elementary properties, ideals, homomorphisms, factor rings, polynomial rings, factorisation of polynomials. Field extensions, applications to straight-edge and compass constructions.

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  • Module content:

    Matrix exponential function: homogeneous and non-homogeneous linear systems of differential equations. Qualitative analysis of systems: phase portraits, stability, linearisation, energy method and Liapunov's method. Introduction to chaotic systems. Application to real life problems.

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  • Module content:

    Direct methods for the numerical solution of systems of linear equations, pivoting strategies. Iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations and eigenvalue problems. Iterative methods for solving systems of nonlinear equations. Introduction to optimization. Algorithms for the considered numerical methods are derived and implemented in computer programmes. Complexity of computation is investigated. Error estimates and convergence results are proved.

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The information published here is subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information. The General Regulations (G Regulations) apply to all faculties of the University of Pretoria. It is expected of each student to familiarise himself or herself well with these regulations as well as with the information contained in the General Rules section. Ignorance concerning these regulations and rules will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression.

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