Yearbooks

Programme: BScAgric Animal Science

Code NQF level Faculty Duration Credits
02133411 NQF level:  08 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Minimum duration of study: 4 years Total credits: 560

Admission requirements

  • The closing date is an administrative admission guideline for non-selection programmes. Once a non-selection programme is full and has reached the institutional targets, then that programme will be closed for further admissions, irrespective of the closing date. However, if the institutional targets have not been met by the closing date, then that programme will remain open for admissions until the institutional targets are met.
  • The following persons will be considered for admission: candidates who are in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required National Senior Certificate with university endorsement, candidates who are graduates from another tertiary institution or have been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution, and candidates who are graduates of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.
  • Life Orientation is excluded from the calculation of the Admission Point Score (APS).
  • Grade 11 results are used for the conditional admission of prospective students. Final admission is based on Grade 12 results.
  • Please note that the Faculty does not accept GED and School of Tomorrow qualifications for entry into our programmes.

Transferring students

  • Candidates previously registered at UP or at another university
    • The faculty’s Admissions Committee considers applications of candidates who have already completed the final NSC or equivalent qualification examination and/or were previously registered at UP or another university, on grounds of their final NSC or equivalent qualification results as well as academic merit.
  • Candidates previously registered at a FET college or a university of technology
    • The faculty’s Admissions Committee considers the application of these candidates on the grounds of their final NSC or equivalent qualification results as well as academic merit.

Qualifications from countries other than South Africa

  • Citizens from countries other than South Africa and South African citizens with foreign qualifications must comply with all the other admission requirements and the prerequisites for subjects/modules.
  • Candidates must have completed the National Senior Certificate with admission to degree studies or a certificate of conditional exemption on the basis of a candidate’s foreign qualifications, the so-called “Immigrant” or “Foreign Conditional Exemption”. The only condition for the “Foreign Conditional Exemption” that is accepted is: ‘completion of the degree course’. The exemption certificate is obtainable from Universities South Africa (USAf). Detailed information is available on the website at click here.

University of Pretoria website: click here
National Benchmark Test website: click here

Minimum requirements

Achievement level

English Home Language or English First Additional Language

Mathematics

Physical Sciences 

APS

NSC/IEB

AS Level

NSC/IEB

AS Level

NSC/IEB

AS Level

5

C

5

C

5

C

32

*  Cambridge A level candidates who obtained at least a D in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. Students in the Cambridge system must offer both Physics AND Chemistry with performance at the level specified for NSC Physical Sciences in the table above.

*  International Baccalaureate (IB) HL candidates who obtained at least a 4 in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. Students in the IB system must offer both Physics AND Chemistry with performance at the level specified for NSC Physical Sciences in the table above.

Candidates who do not comply with the minimum admission requirements for BScAgric (Animal Science), may be considered for admission to the BSc – Extended programme – Biological and Agricultural Sciences. This programme takes a year longer than the normal programmes to complete.

BSc – Extended Programme – Biological and Agricultural Sciences

 Minimum requirements

Achievement level

English Home Language or English First Additional Language

Mathematics

Physical Sciences 

APS

NSC/IEB

AS Level

NSC/IEB

AS Level

NSC/IEB

AS Level

4

D

4

D

4

D

26

 

Other programme-specific information

Compilation of curriculum
Students must register for elective modules in consultation with the head of department who must ensure that the modules do not clash on the set timetable.

The Dean may, in exceptional cases and on recommendation of the relevant head of department, approve deviations from the prescribed curriculum.

Promotion to next study year

A student will be promoted to the following year of study if he or she passed 100 credits of the prescribed credits for a year of study, unless the Dean on the recommendation of the relevant head of department decides otherwise. A student who does not comply with the requirements for promotion to the following year of study, retains the credit for the modules already passed and may be admitted by the Dean, on recommendation of the relevant head of department, to modules of the following year of study to a maximum of 48 credits, provided that it will fit in with both the lecture and examination timetable.

Only students who have completed all prescribed second- and third-year level modules will be admitted to the final year of study.

Pass with distinction

The BScAgric degree is conferred with distinction if a student obtains a weighted average of at least 75% in the modules of the major subjects in the third and the fourth year of study, with a weighted average of at least 65% in the other modules of the third and the fourth year of study.

Minimum credits: 140

Fundamental =   12

Core modules    =   128

Additional information:

Students who do not qualify for AIM 102 must register for AIM 111 and AIM 121.

Students intending to apply for the BVSc selection have to enrol for MTL 180(12).

Fundamental modules

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Simple statistical analysis: Data collection and analysis: Samples, tabulation, graphical representation, describing location, spread and skewness. Introductory probability and distribution theory. Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Statistical inference: Basic principles, estimation and testing in the one- and two-sample cases (parametric and non-parametric). Introduction to experimental design. One- and twoway designs, randomised blocks. Multiple statistical analysis: Bivariate data sets: Curve fitting (linear and non-linear), growth curves. Statistical inference in the simple regression case. Categorical analysis: Testing goodness of fit and contingency tables. Multiple regression and correlation: Fitting and testing of models. Residual analysis. Computer literacy: Use of computer packages in data analysis and report writing.

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  • Module content:

    Basic plant structure and function; introductory plant taxonomy and plant systematics; principles of plant molecular biology and biotechnology; adaptation of plants to stress; medicinal compounds from plants; basic principles of plant ecology and their application in natural resource management.

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  • Module content:

    General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and chemical bonding using the VSEOR model. Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds. Classification of reactions: precipitation, acid-base, redox reactions and gas-forming reactions. Mole concept and stoichiometric calculations concerning chemical formulas and chemical reactions. Principles of reactivity: energy and chemical reactions. Physical behaviour gases, liquids, solids and solutions and the role of intermolecular forces. Rate of reactions: Introduction to chemical kinetics.

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  • Module content:

    Theory: General physical-analytical chemistry: Chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, buffers, solubility equilibrium, entropy and free energy, electrochemistry. Organic chemistry: Structure (bonding), nomenclature, isomerism, introductory stereochemistry, introduction to chemical reactions and chemical properties of organic compounds and biological compounds, i.e. carbohydrates and aminoacids. Practical: Molecular structure (model building), synthesis and properties of simple organic compounds.

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  • Module content:

    Chromosomes and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance: locus and alleles, dominance interactions, extensions and modifications of basic principles.. Probability studies. Sex determination and sex linked traits. Pedigree analysis. Genetic linkage and chromosome mapping. Chromosome variation.

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  • Module content:

    The module will introduce the student to the field of Microbiology. Basic Microbiological aspects that will be covered include introduction into the diversity of the microbial world (bacteria, archaea, eukaryotic microorganisms and viruses), basic principles of cell structure and function, microbial nutrition and microbial growth and growth control. Applications in Microbiology will be illustrated by specific examples i.e. bioremediation, animal-microbial symbiosis, plant-microbial symbiosis and the use of microorganisms in industrial microbiology. Wastewater treatment, microbial diseases and food will be introduced using specific examples.

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  • Module content:

     Introduction to the molecular structure and function of the cell. Basic chemistry of the cell. Structure and composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ultrastructure and function of cellular organelles, membranes and the cytoskeleton. General principles of energy, enzymes and cell metabolism. Selected processes, e.g. glycolysis, respiration and/or photosynthesis. Introduction to molecular genetics: DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation. Cell growth and cell division.

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  • Module content:

    Units, vectors, one dimensional kinematics, dynamics, work, equilibrium, sound, liquids, heat, thermodynamic processes, electric potential and capacitance, direct current and alternating current, optics, modern physics, radio activity.

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  • Module content:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 134, WTW 165, WTW 114, WTW 158. WTW 134 does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level and is intended for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only. WTW 134 is offered as WTW 165 in the second semester only to students who have applied in the first semester of the current year for the approximately 65 MBChB, or the 5-6 BChD places becoming available in the second semester and who were therefore enrolled for MGW 112 in the first semester of the current year. 
    Functions, derivatives, interpretation of the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, interpretation of the definite integral, applications of integration. Matrices, solutions of systems of equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.

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  • Module content:

    Animal classification, phylogeny organisation and terminology. Evolution of the various animal phyla, morphological characteristics and life cycles of parasitic and non-parasitic animals. Structure and function of reproductive,
    respiratory, excretory, circulatory and digestive systems in various animal phyla. In-class discussion will address the sustainable development goals #3, 12, 13, 14 and 15 (Good Health and Well-being. Responsible Consumption and Production, Climate Action, Life Below Water, Life on Land).

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Minimum credits: 147

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Structural and ionic properties of amino acids. Peptides, the peptide bond, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Interactions that stabilise protein structure, denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Introduction to methods for the purification of proteins, amino acid composition, and sequence determinations. Enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibition. Allosteric enzymes, regulation of enzyme activity, active centres and mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. Examples of industrial applications of enzymes and in clinical pathology as biomarkers of diseases. Introduction to practical laboratory techniques and Good Laboratory Practice. Techniques for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of biological molecules, enzyme activity measurements . Processing and presentation of scientific data.

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  • Module content:

    Carbohydrate structure and function. Blood glucose measurement in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Bioenergetics and biochemical reaction types. Glycolysis,  gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and electron transport. Total ATP yield from the complete oxidation of glucose. A comparison of cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Practical techniques for the study and analysis of metabolic pathways and enzymes. PO ratio of mitochondria, electrophoresis, extraction, solubility and gel permeation techniques. Scientific method and design. 

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  • Module content:

    Biochemistry of lipids, membrane structure, anabolism and catabolism of lipids.  Total ATP yield from the complete catabolism of lipids. Electron transport chain and energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and catabolism. Biosynthesis of neurotransmitters, pigments, hormones and nucleotides from amino acids. Catabolism of purines and pyrimidines. Therapeutic agents directed against nucleotide metabolism. Examples of inborn errors of metabolism of nitrogen containing compounds. The urea cycle, nitrogen excretion. Practical training in scientific reading skills: evaluation of a scientific report. Techniques for separation analysis and visualisation of biological molecules. Hypothesis design and testing, method design and scientific controls.

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  • Module content:

    Biochemistry of nutrition and toxicology. Proximate analysis of nutrients. Review of energy requirements and expenditure, starvation, marasmus and kwashiorkor. Respiratory quotient. Requirements and function of water, vitamins and minerals. Interpretation and modification of RDA values for specific diets, eg growth, exercise, pregnancy and lactation, aging and starvation. Interactions between nutrients. Cholesterol, polyunsaturated, essential fatty acids and dietary anti-oxidants. Oxidation of fats. Biochemical mechanisms of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and assessment of vitamin status. Mineral requirements, biochemical mechanisms, imbalances and diarrhoea. Biochemistry of xenobiotics: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME); detoxification reactions: oxidation/reduction (Phase I), conjugations (Phase II), export from cells (Phase III); factors affecting metabolism and disposition. Examples of genetic abnormalities, phenotypes and frequencies. Examples of toxins: biochemical mechanisms of common toxins and their antidotes. Natural toxins from fungi, plants and animals: goitrogens, cyanogens, cholineesterase inhibitors, ergotoxin, aflatoxins  Practical training in scientific writing skills: evaluating  scientific findings. Introduction to practical techniques in nutrition and toxicology. Experimental design and calculations in experiments: determining nutritional value of metabolites and studying the ADME of toxins.

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  • Module content:

    The body cavities, the origin of trunk wall and the principle arrangement of other anatomical structures as explained by the basic embryological development of mammals. Introduction to anatomy and anatomical terminology. Introduction to basic histology of cells, epithelial tissue and connective tissue. Basic anatomy of tissues, organs, systems and joints. Anatomy of the musculo-skeletal system integrated, the histology of connective tissue and muscles. The anatomy and histology of the integument and skin structures, the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, endocrine, urogenital and digestive systems all of which serves as basis for the physiology component of the module. General species differences of the anatomy and histology where applicable.

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  • Module content:

    Origin and development of soil, weathering and soil formation processes. Profile differentiation and morphology. Physical characteristics: texture, structure, soil water, atmosphere and temperature. Chemical characteristics: clay minerals, ion exchange, pH, buffer action, soil acidification and salinisation of soil. Soil fertility and fertilisation. Soil classification. Practical work: Laboratory evaluation of simple soil characteristics. Field practicals on soil formation in the Pretoria area.

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  • Module content:

    The chemical nature of DNA. The processes of DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation. Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Recombinant DNA technology and its applications in gene analysis and manipulation.

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  • Module content:

    Chromosome structure and transposable elements. Mutation and DNA repair. Genomics and proteomics. Organelle genomes. Introduction to genetic analysis of populations: allele and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg Law, its extensions and implications for different mating systems. Introduction to quantitative and evolutionary genetics.

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  • Module content:

    Influence of climate on cropping systems in South Africa. The surface energy balance. Hydrological cycles and the soil water balance. Sustainable crop production. Simple radiation and water limited models. Potential yield, target yield and maximum economic yield. Crop nutrition and fertiliser management. Principles of soil cultivation and conservation. Climate change and crop production – mitigation and adaptation.

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  • Module content:

    A brief perspective on the South African livestock industry with reference to the role of Sustainable development goals (SDGs) in a Southern African context. South African biomes in which animal production is practised. Animal ecological factors that influence regional classification. Introduction to adaptation physiology with reference to origin and domestication of farm and companion animals. Livestock species, breed development and breed characterisation. Basic principles of animal breeding and genetics, animal nutrition. Practical work includes identification and classification of different breeds of livestock.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to the concepts of animal production systems in South African production environments. Principles and requirements for extensive, semi-intensive and intensive livestock production with reference to large- and small stock, poultry and pigs. Principles of communal farming systems in Southern Africa. Game management systems with reference to conservation and game farming. The role of the human in livestock production systems and sustainable production.

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Minimum credits: 140

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Analysis of variance: Multi-way classification. Testing of model assumptions, graphics. Multiple comparisons. Fixed, stochastic and mixed effect models. Block experiments. Estimation of effects. Experimental design: Principles of experimental design. Factorial experiments: Confounding, single degree of freedom approach, hierarchical classification. Balanced and unbalanced designs. Split-plot designs. Analysis of covariance. Computer literacy: Writing and interpretation of computer programmes. Report writing.

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  • Module content:

    Homeostasis and Homeorhesis in animals: Thermoregulation. Adaptation of glucose, lipid and protein metabolism in response to short and long-term changes in the supply and balance of nutrients and to changes in tissue demand for nutrients during different physiological states. Deviations from normal homeostasis, metabolic diseases and the prevention thereof. Pathogenesis of inflammation and infections; immunity.

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  • Module content:

    Functional anatomy, growth and development of tissues and organ systems. The underlying physiological processes in growth and development. Pre- and postnatal growth and factors which determine growth rate: growth curves, stimulants of growth, age, nutrition, breed, sex. Changes during maturation, reproduction, the post-partum period and lactation. Ageing and tissue changes with erosion diseases. The influence of hormones, production and reproduction on conformation and a critical evaluation of assessment of animals for functional efficiency.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to financial management in agriculture: Farm management and agricultural finance, farm management information; analysis and interpretation of farm financial statements; risk and farm planning. Budgets: partial, break-even, enterprise, total, cash flow and capital budgets. Time value of money. Introduction to production and resource use: the agricultural production function, total physical product curve, marginal physical product curve, average physical product curve, stages of production. Assessing short-term business costs; Economics of short-term decisions. Economics of input substitution: Least-cost use of inputs for a given output, short-term least-cost input use, effects of input price changes. Least-cost input use for a given budget. Economics of product substitution. Product combinations for maximum profit. Economics of crop and animal production.

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  • Module content:

    Theriogenology, spermatogenesis, zoogenesis, the female sexual cycle. Species differences. Hormonal control of the sexual functions.

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  • Module content:

    Artificial insemination. Semen collection techniques, the evaluation, dilution and conservation of semen. Collection, conservation and transfer of embryos. Collection of ova and in vitro fertilization. Handling of apparatus and practical insemination, oestrus observation and determination of gestation.

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  • Module content:

    Karyotyping of farm animals; breed and specie differences and the influence on classification of breeds. Influence of chromosomal aberrations. Phenotypic expression of genes and gene-interaction in farm animals. Single gene, major genes and polygenes. Variation in traits of economic importance and statistical description. Use of genetic variation. Estimation of breeding values and family indices on traits determined by single genes. Principles of breeding systems.

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  • Module content:

    Basic principles of chemistry, biochemistry of feed constituents, digestion and metabolism in all livestock species. Description of the characteristics of commonly used feedstuffs, such as forages, silage and hay protein and energy concentrates and by-products.

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  • Module content:

    Evaluation of energy and nutrient content of feedstuffs and assessment of nutritional requirements, and feeding standards for maintenance, growth, reproduction and lactation.

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  • Module content:

    The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the productivity of different strata and components of natural pastures. This will enable the student to advise users, with the necessary motivation, on the appropriate use of these strata and components and will form a basis for further research on this system. The principles of veld management s and the influence of management practices on sustainable animal production from natural pastures. This will enable the student to advise users on veld management and veld management principles. It will also form a basis for further research on veld management.

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  • Module content:

    The establishment and use of planted pastures species and fodder crops and the
    conservation of fodder. This will enable students to advise users on establishment and utilization of planted pastures species as well as farmers on the production,
    conservation and optimum use of fodder. This will also form a basis for further research on planted pastures.

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Minimum credits: 133

Additional Information:

Only students who have completed all prescribed second- and third-year level modules will be admitted to the final year of study.

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Production management of large stock. Aspects of business management of the large-stock enterprise. Management programmes, production systems and techniques applicable to beef cattle, dairy cattle and horses in an environmentally friendly manner, with reference to the role of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in a Southern African context. Specialised nutrition of beef and dairy cattle according to production systems. The use of computer systems in feeding management. Design and planning of farm buildings and structures. Storage and handling of fodder. The handling and management of refuse. Hygiene and herd health programmes. Practical work: This will include compiling rations based on requirements and least cost formulations, specialised assignments and on-farm experiential training.

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  • Module content:

    Specialised small stock and game nutrition. Principles of creep feeding, drought feeding, winter and supplementary feeding. Feeding pen nutrition and final nutritional preparation of lambs. Influence of nutrition on wool, pelts and mohair. Fodder-flow planning. Small stock management, making arrangements for shearing and preparing sheds and equipment, pens, dipping, drinking and feeding facilities. Optimum lamb production for both extensive and intensive flocks within commercial, communal and emerging production systems, recognising the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Preparation and marketing of hides, wool, mohair and karakul. Lambing seasons and herd management. Management programmes for the production of wool, meat, karakul pelt and mohair according to the particular ecological region and for conditions of drought. Herd health programmes. Practical work: Formulation of lowest cost rations and practical work with small ruminants.

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  • Module content:

    Specialised nutrition of poultry in different physiological  stages and production systems. Industrial science and management of production systems and feeding systems in poultry production units. Applied breeding of poultry. Design and utilisation of equipment and housing facilities. Product quality and marketing of poultry products. Hygiene and health programmes. Practical work: The use of computer systems in feeding management of poultry in different production systems. Management of different poultry production systems.

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  • Module content:

    Components of animal performance. Sources of variation, population parameters and the estimation thereof. Introduction to matrix algebra for application in animal breeding. Selection indices theory. Statistical models in estimation of breeding values. Application of breeding values and prerequisites for accuracy. Breeding and selection for reproduction and growth. Principles of QTLs.

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  • Module content:

    Formulation and application of breeding objectives. Animal recording systems and international guidelines for evaluation. Specie-specific breeding systems. Breeding objectives and selection programmes for beef and dairy cattle, small stock, poultry, pigs and companion animals. Selection of traits of economic importance and the efficiency thereof. Crossbreeding systems in meat producing farm animals. Breed development.

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  • Module content:

    Specialised nutrition of monogastric animals: poultry, pigs, horses and selected freshwater aquatic organisms. Pig production and management – sow, boar and growing pigs. The design and utilisation of equipment and housing facilities are discussed and the impact of manure management on environmental health and sustainability. Hygiene and herd health programmes, product quality and marketing. Practical work: The use of computer systems in managing the feeding of selected monogastric animals.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to research methodology. Principles and terminology related to research in animal science. Scientific writing skills and communication. Popular articles, seminars and preparation of scientific manuscripts. Project proposals: approach to problem solving, methodology and appropriate referencing and reporting. Presentation of seminar. Multidisciplinary case studies in a Southern African context. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are reviewed with the focus on the challenges and applications in South Africa and Africa.

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  • Module content:

    Meat industry. Meat species. Composition of carcass and meat, slaughtering process, meat quality, and the consumer. Dairy industry. Composition and nutritional value of milk and factors that influence it. Milk production, milk quality and distribution.

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  • Module content:

    The production potential and quality of pastures as influenced by botanical composition, vegetation cover, livestock grazing and browsing potential, soil chemical, physical and biological conditions in addition to other important environmental processes are addressed. Pasture selection for different purposes and the importance of pasture management requirements within a planned livestock fodder flow system are taught. Monitoring pastures (both natural and cultivated) in different biomes of Southern Africa, through different assessment techniques to understand the health, production potential and quality thereof is explained. The different utilisation methods of pastures, as influenced by the livestock factor and their effects on the pastures regrowth potential, in addition to soil quality aspects are important principles that determine the value of pastures. The evaluation of grasses and other vegetation types in terms of adaptation, acceptability and adaptability to environmental and management conditions are important to an integrated and adaptive pasture and livestock production system.

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The information published here is subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information. The General Regulations (G Regulations) apply to all faculties of the University of Pretoria. It is expected of each student to familiarise himself or herself well with these regulations as well as with the information contained in the General Rules section. Ignorance concerning these regulations and rules will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression.

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