|02241000||Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences|
|Minimum duration of study: 1 year||Total credits: 135||NQF level: 08|
The aim of this degree programme is to produce graduates qualified to operate as professional extension or development agents. On completion of the degree the candidate will be able to design, develop and execute or manage scientifically sound situation-specific and community adapted extension or development programmes, conforming to the principles of participatory development with maximum community involvement and impact.
To enable them to do this they should:
A module in Agricultural economics or any other field of specialisation may be included as an elective module, in consultation with the head(s) of department(s).
Elective coursework that may be required will be decided upon by the head(s) of the particular department(s).
Additional required modules as prescribed for the specific fields of specialisation will be jointly determined by the head(s) of the particular department(s) in question.
In order to obtain the degree, the candidate must achieve a minimum of 50% in each of the prescribed modules.
An average of 75% in all the prescribed modules must be obtained in order to pass the degree with distinction.
Minimum credits: 135
Nature, philosophy and objectives of Extension. The group as channel and instrument in extension; definitions and characteristics of groups; group formation; theories regarding the functioning of groups; group norms; group goals; small group techniques; rural groups and their engagement; definitions and theories of leadership; behaviour and attitude in group work; the extensionist as professional leader; group analysis in group context and process; training of leaders. Conflict resolution, mediation and negotiation. Ethics in extension and agricultural development. Management in extension; Strategic planning; functions of management.
Introduction to the Communication Process, its role and importance. Communication and perception - role of Extension in AKIS. Clarification of principles and definitions; theory of communication; Strategies for communication and Extension methods. Key elements and channels of communication; credibility; persuasion; public speaking; audio visual aids; mass media and their effect; new reporting; articles and newsletters. Designing communication interventions. Impact assessment approaches and tools. Appreciative Communication Inquiry: 5-D Approach.
Overview of the origin, role, development of extension; Philosophy and principles of extension. International approaches to extension delivery: Training and Visit, Farming system development, Project approach, Farmer Field Schools, Participatory Extension and Participatory Technology Development. Extension's role in sustainable agriculture development; Adult learning principles, privatizing and outsourcing of agricultural extension; the role of non-governmental organisations (NGO's) in extension delivery. Decentralisation of extension. Participation and coordination of stakeholders in the planning of linkages between extension, research and the farming community.
Nature, purpose and principles of a programmed and purposeful Extension. The philosophy, principles and assumptions of program development. Institutional framework for community participation, ownership and empowerment; linking with complementary and support services. Overview of the program cycle: consideration, survey, planning, action and evaluation phases. Participatory need appraisal, problem identification and delimination; problem conceptualisation and development of survey instrument; situation surveys and analysis; formulation of objectives; identification and scheduling of methods and activities; Work plan of calendar construction, budgeting. The project management process. Personnel management and administration.
Meaning, scope and place of evaluation in extension; the research- and evaluation process; problem identification; theory and hypotheses; objectives; literature research and information sources; sampling; methods of data collection; evaluation criteria; quality of measuring instruments; scale construction; interviewing. Conducting research and reporting research findings. Preparation of an evaluation report of an extension programme/project.
Understanding change and the time lag phenomenon. Principles of human behaviour and its influence on change. Theoretical perspectives on behaviour change. Understanding resistance and barriers to change. Adoption and diffusion of new innovations. Theories and models of decision-making. Introduction to organisational dynamics; Role of Extension organisations in Rural Development. Theoretical perspectives on organisational change; organisations as rationale and open systems. Understanding organisations and society; organisational pathologies; organisational effectiveness.
Overview of the concepts and theories of rural development including evolution of rural development theories, role of agriculture in rural developments, natural resource base and role of government. Rural livelihood systems focusing on household farming systems, decisions and operation of farming systems, the farm as a social system, nonfarm, off-farm small, micro and medium enterprises in the rural economy, development intervention and household food security. Rural institutions including local governance, community based and farmer organisations, agricultural credit and rural finance, input and output markets, human capital formation, land tenure and land reform, policy making institutions, and institutions of the agricultural knowledge triangle (research, teaching and extension). The relationship between rural sociology, community development and extension; physical and social structures of communities; cultural relativism; sustainability; indigenous knowledge; social stratification; development as change; principles and functions of community development; development barriers; participatory development methodologies, rural poverty. Methodologies for rural development including farming systems approach, participatory appraisal techniques, assessment of land-use patterns and agrarian systems in rural settings: zoning techniques, socio-economic and technical assessment of the farming system, topological techniques and gender sensitive methodologies. Communication for rural development and planning rural development at local levels. Practical assignment in collaboration with rural communities managed by the School’s outreach department.
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