The following persons will be considered for admission: a candidate who is in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required Grade 12 certificate with university endorsement, a candidate who is a graduate from another tertiary institution or has been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution, and a candidate who is a graduate of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.
Life Orientation is excluded in the calculation of the Admission Point Score (APS).
Grade 11 results are used for the conditional admission of prospective students. Final admission is based on the Grade 12 results.
English Home Language or English First Additional Language
* Cambridge A level candidates who obtained at least a D in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. International Baccalaureate (IB) HL candidates who obtained at least a 4 in the required subjects, will be considered for admission.
Candidates who do not comply with the minimum admission requirements for BSc (Medical Sciences), may be considered for admission to the BSc – Extended programme for the Biological and Agricultural Sciences. The BSc – Extended programme takes place over a period of four years instead of the normal three years.
BSc Extended Programme for the Biological and Agricultural Sciences
English Home Language or English First Additional Language
Other programme-specific information
A student must pass all the minimum prescribed and elective module credits as set out at the end of each year within a programme as well as the total required credits to comply with the particular degree programme. Please refer to the curricula of the respective programmes. At least 144 credits must be obtained at 300-/400-level, or otherwise as indicated by curriculum. The minimum module credits needed to comply with degree requirements is set out at the end of each study programme. Subject to the programmes as indicated a maximum of 150 credits will be recognised at 100-level. A student may, in consultation with the relevant head of department and subject to the permission by the Dean, select or replace prescribed module credits not indicated in BSc three-year study programmes to the equivalent of a maximum of 36 module credits.
It is important that the total number of prescribed module credits is completed during the course of the study programme. The Dean may, on the recommendation of the relevant head of department, approve deviations in this regard. Subject to the programmes as indicated in the respective curricula, a student may not register for more than 75 module credits per semester at first-year level subject to permission by the Dean. A student may be permitted to register for up to 80 module credits in a the first semester during the first year provided that he or she obtained a final mark of no less than 70% for grade 12 Mathematics and achieved an APS of 34 or more in the NSC.
Students who are already in possession of a bachelor’s degree, will not receive credit for modules of which the content overlap with modules from the degree that was already conferred. Credits will not be considered for more than half the credits passed previously for an uncompleted degree. No credits at the final-year or 300- and 400-level will be granted.
The Dean may, on the recommendation of the programme manager, approve deviations with regard to the composition of the study programme.
Please note: Where elective modules are not specified, these may be chosen from any modules appearing in the list of modules.
It remains the student’s responsibility to acertain, prior to registration, whether they comply with the prerequisites of the modules they want to register for.
The prerequisites are listed in the Alphabetical list of modules.
Promotion to next study year
A student will be promoted to the following year of study if he or she passed 100 credits of the prescribed credits for a year of study, unless the Dean on the recommendation of the relevant head of department decides otherwise. A student who does not comply with the requirements for promotion to the following year of study, retains the credit for the modules already passed and may be admitted by the Dean, on recommendation of the relevant head of department, to modules of the following year of study to a maximum of 48 credits, provided that it will fit in with both the lecture and examination timetable.
General promotion requirements in the faculty All students whose academic progress is not acceptable can be suspended from further studies.
A student who is excluded from further studies in terms of the stipulations of the abovementioned regulations, will be notified in writing by the Dean or Admissions Committee at the end of the relevant semester.
A student who has been excluded from further studies may apply in writing to the Admissions Committee of the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences for re-admission.
Should the student be re-admitted by the Admissions Committee, strict conditions will be set which the student must comply with in order to proceed with his/her studies.
Should the student not be re-admitted to further studies by the Admissions Committee, he/she will be informed in writing.
Students who are not re-admitted by the Admissions Committee have the right to appeal to the Senior Appeals Committee.
Any decision taken by the Senior Appeals Committee is final.
Pass with distinction
A student obtains his or her degree with distinction if all prescribed modules at 300-level (or higher) are passed in one academic year with a weighted average of at least 75%, and obtain at least a subminimum of 65% in each of the relevant modules.
Minimum credits: 142
Minimum credits: 142
Fundamental = 12 Core = 130
Students who do not qualify for AIM 102 must register for AIM 111 and AIM 121.
Students intend applying for MBChB, or BChD selection, have to enrol for MGW 112(6) and MTL 180(12) with the understanding that they defer doing WTW 134 in the first semester, however, should they not be selected and want to continue with a BSc programme, WTW 165 must be taken in the second semester of the first year.
Find, evaluate, process, manage and present information resources for academic purposes using appropriate technology. Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.
Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.
Introduction to osteology, bone function and classification, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, clavicle, scapula, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, hand and foot bones, sesamoid bones, skull, mandible, joints.
General introduction to cells and tissue, terminology, the cell and cytoplasm, organelles and inclusions, surface and glandular epithelium, general connective tissue, specialised connective tissue, namely cartilage, bone, blood and haemopoietic tissue, muscle and nervous tissue.
Simple statistical analysis: Data collection and analysis: Samples, tabulation, graphical representation, describing location, spread and skewness. Introductory probability and distribution theory. Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Statistical inference: Basic principles, estimation and testing in the one- and two-sample cases (parametric and non-parametric). Introduction to experimental design. One- and twoway designs, randomised blocks. Multiple statistical analysis: Bivariate data sets: Curve fitting (linear and non-linear), growth curves. Statistical inference in the simple regression case. Categorical analysis: Testing goodness of fit and contingency tables. Multiple regression and correlation: Fitting and testing of models. Residual analysis. Computer literacy: Use of computer packages in data analysis and report writing.
General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and chemical bonding using the VSEOR model. Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds. Classification of reactions: precipitation, acid-base, redox reactions and gas-forming reactions. Mole concept and stoichiometric calculations concerning chemical formulas and chemical reactions. Principles of reactivity: energy and chemical reactions. Physical behaviour gases, liquids, solids and solutions and the role of intermolecular forces. Rate of reactions: Introduction to chemical kinetics.
Theory: General physical-analytical chemistry: Chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, buffers, solubility equilibrium, entropy and free energy, electrochemistry. Organic chemistry: Structure (bonding), nomenclature, isomerism, introductory stereochemistry, introduction to chemical reactions and chemical properties of organic compounds and biological compounds, i.e. carbohydrates and aminoacids. Practical: Molecular structure (model building), synthesis and properties of simple organic compounds.
This is a broad introduction to the philosophy and history of science. Examples of themes and historical periods which are covered include: world views in ancient Greece; Socrates; Plato – the founder of Western thought; Aristotle – the foundation of a new tradition; Leonardo da Vinci; the foundation of modern science; the wonder years of the seventeenth century – the flourishing of the sciences and philosophy; the rising of mechanization; a drastic turn in man's vision – the rise of psychology; how the theory of relativity changed our view of the cosmos; quantum theory and its implications for the modern world view; the biological sciences and the secrets of life; the rise and role of psychology; the neuro-sciences; the place, role and benefit of philosophical thought in the sciences.
Chromosomes and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance: locus and alleles, dominance interactions, extensions and modifications of basic principles.. Probability studies. Sex determination and sex linked traits. Pedigree analysis. Genetic linkage and chromosome mapping. Chromosome variation.
The module will introduce the student to the field of Microbiology. Basic Microbiological aspects that will be covered include introduction into the diversity of the microbial world (bacteria, archaea, eukaryotic microorganisms and viruses), basic principles of cell structure and function, microbial nutrition and microbial growth and growth control. Applications in Microbiology will be illustrated by specific examples i.e. bioremediation, animal-microbial symbiosis, plant-microbial symbiosis and the use of microorganisms in industrial microbiology. Wastewater treatment, microbial diseases and food will be introduced using specific examples.
Introduction to the molecular structure and function of the cell. Basic chemistry of the cell. Structure and composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ultrastructure and function of cellular organelles, membranes and the cytoskeleton. General principles of energy, enzymes and cell metabolism. Selected processes, e.g. glycolysis, respiration and/or photosynthesis. Introduction to molecular genetics: DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation. Cell growth and cell division.
Units, vectors, one dimensional kinematics, dynamics, work, equilibrium, sound, liquids, heat, thermodynamic processes, electric potential and capacitance, direct current and alternating current, optics, modern physics, radio activity.
*Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 134, WTW 165, WTW 114, WTW 158. WTW 134 does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level and is intended for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only. WTW 134 is offered as WTW 165 in the second semester only to students who have applied in the first semester of the current year for the approximately 65 MBChB, or the 5-6 BChD places becoming available in the second semester and who were therefore enrolled for MGW 112 in the first semester of the current year. Functions, derivatives, interpretation of the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, interpretation of the definite integral, applications of integration. Matrices, solutions of systems of equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.
*Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 134, WTW 165, WTW 114, WTW 158. WTW 165 does not lead to Mathematics at 200 level and is intended for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only. WTW 165 is offered in English in the second semester only to students who have applied in the first semester of the current year for the approximately 65 MBChB, or the 5-6 BChD places becoming available in the second semester and who were therefore enrolled for MGW 112 in the first semester of the current year.
Functions, derivatives, interpretation of the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, interpretation of the definite integral, applications of integration, matrices, solutions of systems of equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.
Functional review of the cell and cell content. Normal and abnormal cell function in relation to structure. Control of the human cell, heredity and the human genome. Cell communication, growth and development, adhesion and division. Aspects of cellular research. Techniques on how to study cells. Medical cell and molecular biology application. NOTE: This module is not open to all students and may only be taken by BSc: Medical Sciences students.
Introduction to paleoanthropology, focusing on hominid fossil record, principles of evolution, principles of heredity, human variation, introduction to primatology, hominid taxonomy, time-frames and dating methods, fossilisation and taphonomy, trends in hominid evolution, hominid sites. Australopithecus, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo sapiens neanderthalensis, the origin of anatomically modern human beings, DNA studies, palaeo-environments, hominid diets, introduction to the development of culture, South African populations, human adaptation and modernisation.
General introduction to organ structure. Terminology. The eye, ear, skin, circulatory system, nervous system, lymphoid system, gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract glands, respiratory system, urinary system, male and female reproductive systems, endocrine system. NOTE: This module is not open to all students and may only be taken by BSc: Medical Sciences students.
Structural and ionic properties of amino acids. Peptides, the peptide bond, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Interactions that stabilise protein structure, denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Introduction to methods for the purification of proteins, amino acid composition, and sequence determinations. Enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibition. Allosteric enzymes, regulation of enzyme activity, active centres and mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. Examples of industrial applications of enzymes and in clinical pathology as biomarkers of diseases. Introduction to practical laboratory techniques and Good Laboratory Practice. Techniques for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of biological molecules, enzyme activity measurements . Processing and presentation of scientific data.
Carbohydrate structure and function. Blood glucose measurement in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Bioenergetics and biochemical reaction types. Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and electron transport. Total ATP yield from the complete oxidation of glucose. A comparison of cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Practical techniques for the study and analysis of metabolic pathways and enzymes. PO ratio of mitochondria, electrophoresis, extraction, solubility and gel permeation techniques. Scientific method and design.
Biochemistry of lipids, membrane structure, anabolism and catabolism of lipids. Total ATP yield from the complete catabolism of lipids. Nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and catabolism. Biosynthesis of neurotransmitters, pigments, hormones and nucleotides from amino acids. Catabolism of pureness and pyrimidines. Therapeutic agents directed against nucleotide metabolism. Examples of inborn errors of metabolism of nitrogen containing compounds. The urea cycle, nitrogen excretion. Practical training in scientific reading skills: evaluation of a scientific report. Techniques for separation analysis and visualisation of biological molecules. Hypothesis design and testing, method design and scientific controls.
Biochemistry of nutrition and toxicology. Proximate analysis of nutrients. Review of energy requirements and expenditure, starvation, marasmus and kwashiorkor. Respiratory quotient. Requirements and function of water, vitamins and minerals. Interpretation and modification of RDA values for specific diets, eg growth, exercise, pregnancy and lactation, aging and starvation. Interactions between nutrients. Cholesterol, polyunsaturated, essential fatty acids and dietary anti-oxidants. Oxidation of fats. Biochemical mechanisms of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and assessment of vitamin status. Mineral requirements, biochemical mechanisms, imbalances and diarrhoea. Biochemistry of xenobiotics: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME); detoxification reactions: oxidation/reduction (Phase I), conjugations (Phase II), export from cells (Phase III); factors affecting metabolism and disposition. Examples of genetic abnormalities, phenotypes and frequencies. Examples of toxins: biochemical mechanisms of common toxins and their antidotes. Natural toxins from fungi, plants and animals: goitrogens, cyanogens, cholineesterase inhibitors, ergotoxin, aflatoxins Practical training in scientific writing skills: evaluating scientific findings. Introduction to practical techniques in nutrition and toxicology. Experimental design and calculations in experiments: determining nutritional value of metabolites and studying the ADME of toxins.
Structure, gas exchange and non-respiratory functions of the lungs; structure, excretory and non-urinary functions of the kidneys, acid-base balance, as well as the skin and body temperature control. Practical work: Practical exercises to complement the theory.
The chemical nature of DNA. The processes of DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation. Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recombinant DNA technology and its applications in gene analysis and manipulation.
Chromosome structure and transposable elements. Mutation and DNA repair. Genomics and proteomics. Organelle genomes. Introduction to genetic analysis of populations: allele and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg Law, its extensions and implications for different mating systems. Introduction to quantitative and evolutionary genetics.
Growth, replication and survival of bacteria, Energy sources, harvesting from light versus oxidation, regulation of catabolic pathways, chemotaxis. Nitrogen metabolism, iron-scavenging. Alternative electron acceptors: denitrification, sulphate reduction, methanogenesis. Bacterial evolution, systematic and genomics. Biodiversity; bacteria occurring in the natural environment (soil, water and air), associated with humans, animals, plants, and those of importance in foods and in the water industry.
Organisation and molecular architecture of fungal thalli, chemistry of the fungal cell. Chemical and physiological requirements for growth and nutrient acquisition. Mating and meiosis; spore development; spore dormancy, dispersal and germination. Fungi as saprobes in soil, air, plant, aquatic and marine ecosystems; role of fungi as decomposers and in the deterioration of materials; fungi as predators and parasites; mycoses, mycetisms and mycotoxicoses; fungi as symbionts of plants, insects and animals. Applications of fungi in biotechnology.
Introduction to forensic anthropology, detection of graves, excavation of graves, human vs. animal bone, forensic entomology, osteometry, cranial and post-cranial measurements, non-metric features of the skeleton, age determination, sex determination, race determination, ante-mortem stature, dental analysis, osteopathology, factors of individualisation, measurements of the face, introduction to face mapping and skull-photo superimposition, legal aspects. NOTE: This module is not open to all students and may only be taken by BSc: Medical Sciences students.
General introduction to light and electron microscopic techniques: fixation, processing, imbedding, staining. Principles of different staining techniques for LM and EM: routine stains, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, metachromasia, immunocytochemistry, lectin stains, specialised stains. Principles of the operation of LM and EM: general LM, fluorescent microscopy, differential contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.
Practical aspects of cell biology. Cell, tissue, organ, and organism culture. The biology of the culture environment. Cellular basic of morphogenesis, cleavage patterns and gastrulation. The early vertebrate development; neurilation, ecto-, meso- and endoderm derivatives. Cell destiny and embryonic axis including malformations. Development of the tetrapod limb and cell death. Cell interactions at a distance through hormones and metamorphosis. NOTE: This module is not open to all students and may only be taken by BSc: Medical Sciences students.
Regional approach to human anatomy. Cadaver dissection of the head, neck as well as neuro-anatomy. Anatomical techniques. NOTE: This module is not open to all students and may only be taken by BSc: Medical Sciences students.
Introduction, receptors, antagonism, kinetic principles, drugs that impact upon the autonomic and central nervous system, pharmacotherapy of hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and epilepsy. Diuretics, glucocorticosteroids, local anaesthetics, anaesthetic drugs, analgesics, iron and vitamins, oncostatics and immuno suppressants.
Hormones, drugs that act on the histaminergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic receptors. Pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia, depression, obesity, anxiety, insomnia, gastro-intestinal diseases. Anticoagulants, antimicrobial drugs.
During this module the biology of cellular processes such as the cell cycle, cell death, migration and their related cellular signalling pathways will be discussed as well as their role in early stage embryology and age-related pathologies. Practical work: Exposure to applied molecular biology techniques.
Mechanisms of muscle contraction and energy sources. Cardio-respiratory changes, thermo-regulation and other adjustments during exercise. Use and misuse of substances to improve performance. Practical work: Applied practical work
Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes: regulation at the genome, transcription, RNA processing and translation levels. DNA elements and protein factors involved in gene control. The role of chromatin structure and epigenetic changes. Technology and experimental approaches used in studying eukaryotic gene control. Applications of the principles of gene control in eg cell signaling pathways, development cancer and other diseases in humans.
Mechanisms involved in the evolution of genes, genomes and phenotypes. Comparison of the molecular organisation of viral, archaea, bacterial and eukaryotic genomes. Genome project design, DNA sequencing methods and annotation. Molecular evolution. Phylogenetic inference. Applications of phylogenetics and evolutionary genomics research, including relevance to sustainable development goals for food security, good health and the biosphere.
Genetic and phenotypic variation. Organisation of genetic variation. Random genetic drift. Mutation and the neutral theory. Darwinian selection. Inbreeding, population subdivision and migration. Evolutionary quantitative genetics. Population genomics. Human population genetics. Levels of selection and individuality. Arms races and irreversibility. Complexity. Applied evolution.
Application of modern genetics to human variability, health and disease. Molecular origin of Mendelian and multifactorial diseases. The use of polymorphisms, gene mapping, linkage and association studies in medical genetics. Genetic diagnosis: application of cytogenetic, molecular and genomic techniques. Congenital abnormalities, risk assessment and genetic consultation. Prenatal testing, population screening, treatment of genetic diseases and gene-based therapy. Pharmacogenetics and cancer genetics. Ethical aspects in medical genetics.
The information published here is subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information. The General Regulations (G Regulations) apply to all faculties of the University of Pretoria. It is expected of students to familiarise themselves well with these regulations as well as with the information contained in the General Rules section. Ignorance concerning these regulations and rules will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression.
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