Yearbooks

Programme: BEng Mechanical Engineering

Code Faculty Duration Credits Download
12130004 Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology Duration of study: 4 years Total credits: 576

Programme information

All fields of study of the BEng degree have been accredited by the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), and comply with the academic requirements for registration as a professional engineer. The programmes are designed in accordance with the outcomes-based model as required by the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA). The learning outcomes and contents of the programmes have been compiled in accordance with the latest accreditation standards (PE-60 and PE-61) of ECSA, which also comply with the SAQA requirements, and which are summarised as follows:

Learning outcomes of the BEng degree:
A graduate in engineering should be able to apply the following skills on an advanced level:

  1. Engineering problem solving.
  2. Application of specialist and fundamental knowledge, with specific reference to mathematics, basic sciences and engineering sciences.
  3. Engineering design and synthesis.
  4. Investigation, experimentation and data analysis.
  5. Engineering methods, skills, tools and information technology.
  6. Professional and general communication.
  7. Awareness and knowledge of the impact of engineering activity on society and the physical environment.
  8. Work in teams and in multidisciplinary environments.
  9. An awareness and ability for lifelong learning.
  10. An awareness and knowledge of principles of professional ethics and practice.


Learning contents of the BEng programmes:
Six essential knowledge areas are included in the syllabi of the programmes. The typical representation of each knowledge area as a percentage of the total contents of an undergraduate programme is given in brackets ( ) in the list below. This percentage varies for the different study directions, but conforms in all instances to the minimum knowledge area content as stipulated by ECSA.
Knowledge areas:

  1. Mathematics, including numerical methods and statistics (13%)
  2. Basic sciences: the natural sciences essential to the programme (15%)
  3. Engineering sciences (40%)
  4. Engineering design and synthesis (16%)
  5. Computing and information technology (5%)
  6. Complementary studies: communication, economy, management, innovation, environmental impact, ethics, engineering practice (11%).

Admission requirements

  • The following persons will be considered for admission: a candidate who is in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required Grade 12 certificate with university endorsement; a candidate who is a graduate from another tertiary institution or has been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution; and a candidate who is a graduate of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.
  • Life Orientation is excluded when calculating the APS.
  • Grade 11 results are used in the provisional admission of prospective students.
  • A valid qualification with admission to degree studies is required.
  • Minimum subject and achievement requirements, as set out below, are required. On first-year level a student has a choice between Afrikaans and English as language medium. In certain cases, tuition may be presented in English only, for example in electives, where the lecturer may not speak Afrikaans or in cases where it is not economically or practically viable.
  • Provisional admission to the four-year programmes in the School of Engineering is only guaranteed if a prospective student complies with ALL the requirements below.
    Note: Candidates who do not comply with the minimum requirements, set out above, but who have obtained a minimum APS of 30, an achievement level of 5 for English or Afrikaans, 6 for Mathematics and 5 for Physical Science, will be considered for provisional admission to either the four-year programme or the ENGAGE programme based on the results of the NBT.
  • Admission to ENGAGE in the School of Engineering will be determined by the results of the NBT, NSC results, an achievement level of 5 in Mathematics and 4 in Physical Science, as well as an achievement level of 4 in Afrikaans or English, together with an APS of 25. Students may apply directly to be considered for the ENGAGE programme.

 

Minimum requirements 
Achievement level
Afrikaans or English Mathematics Physical Science APS
NSC/IEB HIGCSE AS-Level A-Level NSC/IEB HIGCSE AS-Level A-Level NSC/IEB HIGCSE AS-Level A-Level

5

3 C C 6 2 B B* 6 2 B B* 35

* A-Level: C symbols for Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry will be considered for admission providing the required APS has been obtained.

 

Other programme-specific information

Please note: For the Aeronautical Option, the themes of both the Design and the Project must be aeronautical-related.

With a few exceptions, most modules offered at the School of Engineering are semester modules having credit values of either 8 or 16.
A student may be permitted by the Dean, on recommendation of the relevant head of the department, to register for an equivalent module in an alternate semester, although the module is normally offered to the student’s group in another semester, and providing that no timetable clashes occur.

Please note:

  1. Students who did not pass SWK 122 Mechanics 122 in their first year of study can take the module in the first semester of the following year.
  2. All students are required to successfully complete JCP 2013, Community-based project 203 as part of the requirements for the BEng degree. A student may register for the module during any of the years of study of the programme, but preferably not during the first or the final year of study.
  3. Students registered for Chemical Engineering who have passed CBI 311, receive credit for CBI 410.
  4. Mechanical Engineering: For the Aeronautical Option, the themes of both the Design and the Project must be aeronautical-related.
  5. Offering of electives depends on the availability of resources and industry support.

Promotion to next study year

Promotion to the second semester of the first year and to the second year of study (Eng. 14)

  1. A new first-year student who has failed in all the prescribed modules of the programme at the end of the first semester, is excluded from studies in the School of Engineering. A student who is registered for the Engineering Augmented Degree Programme and has passed only 8 credits will also be excluded.
  2. A student who complies with all the requirements of the first year of study, is promoted to the second year of study.
  3. A student who has not passed at least 70% of the credits of the first year of study after the November examinations, must reapply for admission should he/she intend to proceed with his/her studies. Application on the prescribed form must be submitted to the Student Administration of the School of Engineering not later than 11 January. Late applications will be accepted only in exceptional circumstances after approval by the Dean. Should first-year students be readmitted, conditions of readmission will be determined by the Admissions Committee.
  4. Students who have not passed all the prescribed modules at first year level (level 100), as well as students who are readmitted in terms of Faculty Regulations must register for the outstanding first-year level (level-100) modules.
  5. A student who is repeating his or her first year, may, on recommendation of the relevant heads of department and with the approval of the Dean, be permitted to enroll for modules of the second-year of study in addition to the first-year modules which he or she failed, providing that he or she complies with the prerequisites for the second-year modules and no timetable clashes occur. Students on the ENGAGE programme may, following the same procedure, be permitted to enrol for level-200 modules in addition to the level-100 modules which he/she failed providing that he/she complies with the prerequisites for the modules at 200-level and no timetable clashes occur. On recommendation of the relevant head of department and with special permission from the Dean, permission may be granted to exceed the prescribed number of credits. The total number of credits which may be approved may not exceed the normal number of credits per semester by more than 16 credits.
  6. Students in Computer, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, who fail a first-year module for the second time, forfeit the privilege of registering for any modules of an advanced year of study.


Please note:

  1. From the second year of study each student should be in possession of an approved calculator. It is assumed that each student will have easy access to a personal computer.
  2. Students who intend transferring to Mining Engineering, must familiarise themselves with the stipulations set out in the syllabi of PWP 121 Workshop practice 121.


Promotion to the third year of study of the Four-year Programme, as well as to the third and the fourth years of study of the ENGAGE Programme. In case of the fourth year of study of the ENGAGE Programme, the words "first", "second" and "third" must be substituted with the words "second", "third" and "fourth" respectively. (Eng. 15)

  1. A student who complies with all the requirements of the second year of study, is promoted to the third year of study.
  2. A student must pass all the prescribed modules at first year level (level 100) before he or she is admitted to any module at third year level (level 300).
  3. A student who is repeating his or her second year must register for all the second-year modules still outstanding. Such a student may, on recommendation of the relevant head of department and with the approval of the Dean, be permitted to enroll for modules of the third year of study in addition to the second-year modules which he or she failed, providing that he or she complies with the prerequisites for the third-year modules and no timetable clashes occur. On recommendation of the relevant head of department, and with special permission from the Dean, permission may be granted to exceed the prescribed number of credits. The total number of credits which may be approved may not exceed the normal number of credits per semester by more than 16 credits.
  4. Students in Computer, Electrical and Electronic Engineering who fail a second-year module for the second time forfeit the privilege of registering for any modules of the third year of study.
  5. Students who intend transferring to Mining Engineering must familiarise themselves with the stipulations set out in the syllabi of PWP 120 Workshop practice 120, as well as PPY 317 Practical training 317.


Promotion to the fourth year of study of the Four-year Programme, as well as to the fifth year of study of the ENGAGE Programme. In case of the fifth year of study of the ENGAGE Programme, the words "second", "third" and "fourth" must be substituted with the words "third", "fourth" and "fifth" respectively. (Eng. 16)

  1. A student who complies with all the requirements of the third year of study is promoted to the fourth year of study. A student who does not comply with all the requirements but who is able to register for all outstanding modules in order to complete the degree programme, may at registration be promoted to the fourth year of study.
  2. A student must pass all the prescribed modules of the second year of study, before he or she is admitted to any module of the fourth year of study.
  3. A student who has not passed all the prescribed modules of the third year of study, must register for the outstanding modules. A student may be admitted by the Dean, on the recommendation of the head of department concerned, to modules of the fourth year of study, in addition to the outstanding third-year modules, provided that he or she complies with the prerequisites of the fourth-year modules and no timetable clashes occur. The total number of credits per semester for which a student registers may not exceed the normal number of credits per semester by more than 16 credits. In exceptional cases, the Dean may, on recommendation of the relevant head of department, permit a student to exceed the above limit.
  4. Students in Computer, Electrical and Electronic Engineering who fail a third-year module for the second time, forfeit the privilege of registering for any modules of the fourth year of study.

Pass with distinction

  1. A student graduates with distinction if:
  1. no module of the third or fourth year of study of the four year programme or of the fourth or fifth year of the ENGAGE programme was repeated and a weighted average of at least 75% was obtained in one year in all the modules of the final year of study; and
  2. the degree programme was completed within the prescribed four years for the four year programme and within the prescribed five years of the ENGAGE programme.
  1. Exceptional cases to the above will be considered by the Dean.

Minimum credits: 144

Fundamental modules

Core modules

  • Module content:

    General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds, stoichiometric calculations concerning chemical reactions, redox reactions, solubilities and solutions, atomic structure, periodicity. Molecular structure and chemical bonding using the VSEPR model. Principles of reactivity, electrochemistry, energy and chemical reactions, entropy and free energy.
    Appropriate tutorial classes and practicals.

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  • Module content:

    Electrical quantities, units, definitions, conventions. Electrical symbols, ideal and practical current and voltage sources, controlled sources. Ohm’s law in resistive circuits, Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws, resistors in series and parallel circuits, voltage and current division, mesh current and node voltage methods. Circuit theorems: Linearity, superposition, Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits, sources transformation, power calculation, maximum power transfer. Energy storage elements: current, voltage, power and energy in inductors and capacitors, inductors and capacitors in series and parallel. Ideal operational amplifiers and applications: inverting and noninverting amplifiers, summing amplifiers, current sources, integrators.

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  • Module content:

    Introductory mathematics: Symbols, exponents, logarithms, angles in degrees, radial measure, goniometry, differentiation, and integration. Motion along a straight line: position and displacement, acceleration. Vectors: adding vectors, components, multiplying vectors. Motion in two and three dimensions: projectile motion, circular motion. Force and motion: Newton’s Law, force, friction. Kinetic energy and work: work, power. Potential energy: Centre of mass, linear momentum. Collisions: impulse and linear momentum, elastic collisions, inelastic collisions. Rotation: kinetic energy of rotation, torque.  Oscillations and waves: Simple harmonic motion, types of waves, wavelength and frequency, interference of waves, standing waves, the Doppler effect. Temperature, heat and the first law of thermodynamics.

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  • Module content:

    Freehand sketching covering the following: perspective, isometric and orthographic drawings. Drawing conventions, graphical techniques and assembly drawings. Evaluation of drawings and error detection. True lengths of lines, projections and intersections. Practical applications of these techniques. Introduction to computer-aided drawings, including dimensioning, crosshatching and detailing. Introduction to basic manufacturing processes including primary (casting, forging and extrusion) and secondary (drilling, turning, milling, grinding, broaching and sawing) manufacturing procedures.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to materials: the family of materials, atomic structure and types of bonding, crystal types and space arrangement of atoms, directions and planes in crystals, defects in crystals, diffusion in solids. Mechanical properties of materials: stress and strain, mechanical testing (strength, ductility, hardness, toughness, fatigue, creep), plastic deformation, solid-solution hardening, recrystallisation.
    Polymeric materials: polymerisation and industrial methods, types of polymeric materials and their properties. Corrosion of metals: mechanisms and types of corrosion, corrosion rates, corrosion control. The heat treatment of steel: Fe-C phase diagram, equilibrium cooling, hardening and tempering of steel, stainless steel. Composite materials: Introduction, fibre reinforced polymeric composites, concrete, asphalt, wood.

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  • Module content:

    Equivalent force systems, resultants. Newton's laws, units. Forces acting on particles. Rigid bodies: principle of transmissibility, resultant of parallel forces. Vector moments and scalar moments. Relationship between scalar- and vector moments. Couples. Equivalent force systems on rigid bodies. Resultants of forces on rigid bodies. Equilibrium in two and three dimensions. Hooke's law. Trusses and frameworks. Centroids and second moments of area. Beams: distributed forces, shear force, bending moment, method of sections, relationship between load, shear force and bending moment.

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  • Module content:

    *This module is designed for first-year engineering students. Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 158, WTW 114, WTW 134, WTW 165.
    Introduction to vector algebra. Functions, limits and continuity. Differential calculus of single variable functions, rate of change, graph sketching, applications. The mean value theorem, the rule of L'Hospital. Indefinite integrals, integration.

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  • Module content:

    *Attendance module only
    The module is offered at the end of the first year of study and lasts at least eight days, during which training is given in the following workshops: electronic projects, panel wiring, electrical motors and switch gear, general machines, welding, turning and sheet metal work. Each student's progress is assessed after each workshop.

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  • Module content:

    Social sciences: Perspectives on contemporary society
    An introduction to long-standing questions about the nature of human societies and contemporary challenges. Topics to be discussed include globalisation and increasing connectedness; rising unemployment, inequality and poverty; rapid urbanisation and the modern city form; transformations in the nature of work; environmental degradation and tensions between sustainability and growth; shifts in global power relations; the future of the nation-state and supra-national governance structures; and possibilities for extending human rights and democracy. Critical questions are posed about modern selfhood, sociality, culture and identity against the background of new communications technologies, ever more multicultural societies, enduring gender, class and race inequities, and the emergence of new and the resurgence of older forms of social and political identity. These issues are approached from the vantage of our location in southern Africa and the continent, drawing on social science perspectives.

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  • Module content:

    Humanities: Text, culture and communication
    Successful communication of ideas, values and traditions depends on understanding both the literal and implied meanings of texts. In this module students are introduced to a variety of texts, including original literary and visual texts, with a view to developing an understanding of how textual meanings have been constructed and negotiated over time. Students are encouraged to understand themselves as products of – and participants in – these traditions, ideas and values. Appropriate examples will be drawn from, among others, the Enlightenment, Modernism, Existentialism, Postmodernism and Post-colonialism.

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  • Module content:

    *This module is designed for first-year engineering students. Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 146, WTW 148 and WTW 124,

    Vector algebra with applications to lines and planes in space, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, determinants, complex numbers, factorisation of polynomials and conic sections. Integration techniques, improper integrals. The definite integral, fundamental theorem of Calculus. Applications of integration. Elementary power series and Taylor’s theorem. Vector functions, space curves and arc lengths. Quadratic surfaces and multivariable functions.

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Minimum credits: 146

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Engineering systems are often subjected to variation, uncertainty and incomplete information. Mathematical statistics provides the basis for effectively handling and quantifying the effect of these factors. This module provides an introduction to the concepts of mathematical statistics and will include the following syllabus themes: data analysis, probability theory, stochastic modelling, statistical inference and  regression analysis.

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  • Module content:

    This module is integrated into all undergraduate academic programmes offered by the Faculty. Main objectives: execution of a community project aimed at achieving a beneficial impact on a section of society; awareness of personal, social and cultural values and an understanding of social issues; and development of life skills. Assessment: project proposal, written progress reports, peer assessment, assessment by community, presentation, report presented in the form of a blog.

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  • Module content:

    Detailed exposure to manufacturing processes including heat treatment. Detailed exposure to machine elements. Conceptual framework for design process including life cycle, ergonomics, material selection, manufacturing and safety factor considerations.

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  • Module content:

    Analyse statistically determinate structures to obtain section forces and moments and stress distributions. Thin-walled pressure vessels. Stress and strain transformations. Introduction of stress tensor. Derivation of stress transformation equations. Eigenvalue/vector analysis for principle stresses and strains. Mohr’s circle. Failure criteria. Fatigue strength design. All analysis techniques above are applied to the open-ended design of components like beams and shafts.

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  • Module content:

    Kinetics of systems of particles, Newton’s 2nd law generalised for a system of particles, rate of change of momentum and angular momentum relations, work-energy relations, conservation laws, steady mass flow. Plane kinematics of rigid bodies, rotation, translation, general 2D motion, relative motion analysis. Moments and products of inertia. Plane kinetics of rigid bodies, equations of motion, rotation, translation, general 2D motion, work-energy relations. Vibration and time response.

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  • Module content:

    Application overview. Concepts: system, control volume, property, state, process, cycles, mass, volume, density, pressure, pure substances, property tables, ideal gases. Work and heat. Internal energy, enthalpy, specific heat capacity. First Law of Thermodynamics for system and control volume. Conservation of mass. Processes: Adiabatic, isentropic, compressible and incompressible gases. Second Law of Thermodynamics for system and control volume. Entropy and enthalpy. Third Law of Thermodynamics. Introduction to vapour power, cooling and gas cycles. Experimental techniques in thermodynamics.

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  • Module content:

    Linear algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors with applications to first and second order systems of differential equations. Sequences and series, convergence tests. Power series with applications to ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Fourier series with applications to partial differential equations such as potential, heat and wave equations.

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  • Module content:

    Theory and solution methods for linear differential equations as well as for systems of linear differential equations. Theory and solution methods for first order non-linear differential equations. The Laplace transform with application to differential equations. Application of differential equations to modelling problems.

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  • Module content:

    Calculus of multivariable functions, directional derivatives. Extrema. Multiple integrals, polar, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Line integrals and the theorem of Green. Surface integrals and the theorems of Gauss and Stokes.

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  • Module content:

    Numerical integration. Numerical methods to approximate the solution of non-linear equations, systems of equations (linear and non-linear), differential equations and systems of differential equations. Direct methods to solve linear systems of equations.

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  • Module content:

    Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering audiences and the community at large. Written communication as evidenced by: uses appropriate structure, use of modern or electronic communication methods; style and language for purpose and audience; uses effective graphical support; applies methods of providing information for use by others involved in engineering activity; meets the requirements of the target audience. Effective oral communication as evidenced by appropriate structure, style and language; appropriate visual materials; delivers fluently; meets the requirements of the intended audience. Audiences range from engineering peers, management and lay persons, using appropriate academic or professional discourse. Typed reports range from short (300-1 000 word plus tables diagrams) to long (10 000-15 000 words plus tables, diagrams, references and appendices), covering material at exit level. Methods of providing information include the conventional methods of the discipline, for example engineering drawings, as well as subject-specific methods. Plagiarism policies and their implications.

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  • Module content:

    Advanced spreadsheet applications: Named ranges, linear algebra, solution of systems of equations, regression, interpolation, optimisation and table manipulation. Basic structured programming: Looping, branching, subroutines, iteration, reading and writing data files. Development, coding and debugging of simple programs in a high level programming language. Programming principles are illustrated via mathematical concepts such as limits, differentiation, integration and linear algebra. Structured programming by making use of functions and available toolboxes. Basic graphical output (plotting is also covered). Different information resources, searching and management of information. Use of databases. Development of webpages. Hardware interaction and control of equipment and systems.

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Minimum credits: 144

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Transient response phenomena in RC, RL and RLC circuits: Natural response and step response. Alternating current (AC) circuits: Phasors, impedances, and power in AC circuits. The application of Ohm’s law, Kirchoff’s circuit theorems, matrix methods, and Thevenin and Norton equivalents to sinusoidal steady-state analysis. Three-phase circuits: Balanced three-phase circuits, star/delta configurations, and three-phase power transfer calculations. Magnetically coupled circuits: Mutual inductance, coupling factor, transformers, ideal transformers and autotransformers. Application of circuit theory to induction motors: basic principles of induction motors, equivalent circuit and analysis thereof, calculation of power and torque through application of Thevenin's theorem. Synoptic introduction to other types of motors.

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  • Module content:

    Open-ended subsystem design using the following elements: Beams, shafts, bolts, bearings, rivets, welds, springs, couplings, clutches, brakes, gears and gear systems. Static and fatigue design fundamentals. Code design: Pressure vessels, structural steel design, hoisting systems and ropes, welding SANS code.

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  • Module content:

    Computational dynamics analysis of mechanisms, linkages and cams. Structural computational analysis using finite element software. Systems engineering and functional analysis. Open-ended multidisciplinary design and design improvement of products and systems.

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  • Module content:

    Prescribed practical training in industry during or at end of second year. Aim is exposure to engineering equipment and processes, working environment of craftsmen and personnel relations. Duration at least six weeks. Perform case study on personnel management and submit together with a satisfactory report on the practical training, to the Faculty Administration within one week of registration. Attend two (2) industry visits in the first semester and two (2) industry visits in the second semester. Attend at least six (6) guest lectures through the year.

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  • Module content:

    Statistically determinate force systems. Statistically determinate stress systems. Stress-strain relations. Statistically indeterminate stress systems. Torsion. Bending stress, slope and deflection. Statistically indeterminate beams. Energy methods. Buckling instability. Stress and strain transformations. Experimental strain measurements. Yield criteria and stress concentration. Elementary plasticity. Fracture mechanics. Fatigue. Variation of stress and strain. Thick-walled cylinders.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to vibration: basic concepts, classification, modelling elements. Single degree of freedom systems: undamped and damped free vibration,  undamped and damped harmonic motion, non-periodic excitation, numerical integration. Multidegree of freedom systems: discretisation, eigenproblem, co-ordinate coupling. Vibration control: balancing, isolation, absorbers. Vibration and sound measurement: signal analysis, modal testing, vibration monitoring. Continuum systems: string, bar, rod. Sound and noise: metrics, measurement, legislation.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction: Liquids and gases, pressure, viscosity, temperature, heat. Introduction to Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. Definitions and properties of fluids, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, Bernoulli equations. Flow measurements. Dimensional analysis: force, drag, Reynolds number, force coefficient, power. Flow in pipes and channels: friction coefficients and Reynolds number, pressure drop; laminar, turbulent and transitional flow. Flow over bodies: drag and lift. Experimental techniques in fluid mechanics. Introduction to basic thermodynamic heat transfer concepts: conduction (steady state and transient heat conduction), extended surfaces, applications.

     

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  • Module content:

    Third Law of Thermodynamics, availability and useful work. Ideal and real gases. Compressible flow: conservation laws, characteristics of compressible flow, normal shock waves, nozzles and diffusers. Power cycles: classification, internal combustion engine cycles (Otto and Diesel), vapour power cycles (Brayton, Rankine), refrigeration cycles (Reversed Carnot cycle, Reversed Brayton cycle, ammonia absorption cycle) and heat pump cycles. Mixtures of gases: perfect gas mixture, water/air mixtures and processes (psychrometry). Heating and cooling load calculations, basic refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Combustion: fuels, air-fuel ratios, heat of formation, combustion in internal combustion engines.

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  • Module content:

    Programme and systems engineering Concepts: Application of project management, systems thinking, systems approach, product, system and project life cycles, project phases and specification practices. Development models: stage-gate development, project charter, systems engineering models, systems engineering management and life cycle characteristics. Planning and Scheduling: task definition, work breakdown structures, duration estimation, Gantt charts, critical path, resource handling. Costs and Budgets: cost estimates, project life cycle costs, work authorisation. Control: project organisation. Legal: contracts, intellectual property. Case studies and semester project Engineering Economics Decision making in an engineering environment. Allocation of cost. Money-time relationships (discreet interest formulae, tables, financial calculator, Excel). Bases for comparison of alternatives (present worth, annual worth,). Decision making among alternatives before and after tax (useful lives equal to study period, useful lives different among alternatives).

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  • Module content:

    Two exit learning outcomes (ELO) of ECSA are addressed and each must be passed in the same semester. ELO7: Demonstrate critical awareness of the impact of engineering activity on the social, industrial and physical environment. The history of engineering globally and in South Africa. Most important engineering projects globally and in South Africa. The impact of technology on society. Occupational and public health and safety. Occupational Health and Safety Act. Impacts on the physical environment. The personal, social, cultural values and requirements of those affected by engineering activity. The combination of social, workplace (industrial) and physical environmental factors are appropriate to the discipline of the qualification. ELO8: Demonstrate competence to work effectively on a small project as an individual, in teams and in multidisciplinary environments. Identifies and focuses on objectives. Works strategically. Executes tasks effectively. Delivers completed work on time. Effective team work: Makes individual contribution to team activity; performs critical functions; enhances work of fellow team members; benefits from support of team members; communicates effectively with team members; delivers completed work on time. Multidisciplinary work by the following: Acquires a working knowledge of co-workers’ discipline; uses a systems engineering approach; communicates across disciplinary boundaries. Report and presentation on team project. Tasks require co-operation across at least one disciplinary boundary. Students acquire a working knowledge of co-workers discipline. Students communicate between disciplinary boundaries.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to continuum mechanics. Kinematics of deformation and the strain tensor. Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. The stress tensor and equilibrium equations. Hooke’s law for isotropic media. Strong form of Boundary Value Problem (BVP) of solid mechanics. Weak form of BVP of solid mechanics. Derivation of finite element equations using weighted residuals. Development of 2D elements.

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Minimum credits: 144

Core modules

  • Module content:

    Introduction to control systems. Modelling of dynamic systems. Transfer functions. Block diagrams and block diagram algebra. Linearisation of non-linear systems. Disturbance signals. Steady-state accuracy. Control systems characteristics. Analysis of control systems using Laplace transformations. Root loci. Bode diagrams. Design of compensators using bode diagram and root locus design techniques. Introduction to sampled data control systems. The Z-transsorm. Implementation of controllers on a computer. Controls laboratory.

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  • Module content:

    A comprehensive design in order to cover all the design aspects of functionality, analysis, ability to integrate, manufacturability and maintainability. Cost and reliability are included as inclusive factors.

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  • Module content:

    During or at the end of the third year of study, students in Mechanical Engineering undergo prescribed practical training in the industry. The purpose is the execution of small projects on engineering assistant level with exposure to the various relevant functions in the organisation. The duration is at least six weeks. A case study on occupational health and safety must be done in this period and submitted to the department together with a satisfactory report on the practical training within one week of registration. Students must also attend two (2) industry visits in the first semester and two (2) industry visits in the second semester as well as attend at least six (6) guest lectures through the year.

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  • Module content:

    (i)  Thermodynamics: Introductory thermodynamics with reference to power cycles. Energy systems and views, transformation of energy. Nuclear power.
    (ii) Steam generators: Work fluids, fire-tube boilers, water-pipe boilers, heat exchange boilers, power nuclear reactors. Feedwater. Industrial uses of steam.
    (iii) Combustion technique: Types of fuels – oil, coal, gas; their combustion methods. Ash and its properties. Air pollution.
    (iv) Steam engines: Turbo machine theory; types of turbines – properties and uses. Blades, rotors, sealing, balancing. Parallel operation of turbo generators in a power network.
    (v) Internal combustion engines: Spark ignition and compression ignition. Applications.
    (i) Classification: kinetic and positive displacement pumps and compressors. Incompressible and compressible flow. Pump, compressor and fan theory.
    (ii) Equipment: functioning, properties, characteristics and use of well-known pumps and compressors.
    (iii) Applications: specific speed, cavitation, water hammer. Pump connections: pipe system connections. Pumping of solids. Air-pressure systems.
    (iv) Turbo machines: turbo machine theory. Impulse and reaction turbines. Analytical analysis. Characteristics: applications; integration of hydroturbines with power systems.

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  • Module content:

    Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. Euler equations, momentum equations. Conduction in two dimensions. Similarity and dimensional analysis. Convective heat transfer: forced convection (external and internal), natural convection. Boiling and condensation. Thermal radiation. Heat exchangers: classification, Parallel flow and counterflow heat exchangers; double-pass, multi-pass and cross-flow heat exchangers; LMTD method, Effectiveness-NTU method, selection of heat exchangers. Experimental techniques in heat transfer.

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  • Module content:

    Requirements to maintain continued competence and to keep abreast of up-to date tools and techniques. ECSA code of conduct, Continuing Professional Development, ECSA outcomes, ECSA process and reasons for registration as CEng and PrEng. Displays understanding of the system of professional development. Accepts responsibility for own actions. Displays judgment in decision making during problem solving and design. Limits decision making to area of current competence. Reason about and make judgment on ethical aspects in case study context. Discerns boundaries of competence in problem solving and design. Case studies typical of engineering practice situations in which the graduate is likely to participate.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to continuum mechanics, continuity equation, momentum equation, Navier-Stokes equation, energy equation, boundary conditions in thermal fluid systems, finite difference method, introduction to finite volume method (FVM), FVM for diffusion problems, FVM for convection-diffusion problems, introduction to pressure-velocity coupling in FVM. SIMPLE algorithm, selecting and assessing the applicability and limitations of the method, properly applying the method with commercial software, critically testing and assessing the end-results.

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  • Module content:

    The module involves the management of the execution of a project that produces knowledge and understanding of a phenomenon, conclusions and a recommended course of action. The project is undertaken under the supervision of a staff member with the student ultimately taking responsibility for the management of and execution of the project. The student should be able to demonstrate competence in designing and conducting investigations and experiments and adherence to well defined time-lines and work breakdown structures. An acceptable process consists of but is not restricted to: (a) planning and conducting of investigations and experiments; (b) conducting of a literature search and critically evaluating material. The student should be able to demonstrate competence in engaging in independent learning through well-developed skills by: (a) reflecting on own learning and determining learning requirements and strategies; (b) sourcing and evaluating information; (c) determining learning requirements and strategies; (d) accessing, comprehending and applying knowledge acquired outside formal instruction; (e) critically challenging assumptions and embracing new thinking as well as communicating progress on a regular basis.

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  • Module content:

    The module involves the management of the execution of a project that produces knowledge and understanding of a phenomenon, conclusions and a recommended course of action. The project is undertaken under the supervision of a staff member with the student ultimately taking responsibility for the management of and execution of the project. This module follows onto MSC 412 and deals with the same topic in the same year. The student should be able to demonstrate competence in designing and conducting investigations and experiments and adherence to well defined time-lines and work breakdown structures. An acceptable process consists of but is not restricted to: (a) understanding of the stated problem, (b) developing a work breakdown structure, (c) performing the necessary analyses; (d) selecting and using appropriate equipment or software; (e) construction and instrumentation of an experimental set-up; (f) taking measurements; (g) analysing, interpreting and deriving information from data; (h) drawing conclusions based on evidence; (i) communicating the purpose, process and outcomes in a technical report, presentation and poster.

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Elective modules

  • Module content:

    Introduction: Definition and objectives, statistical concepts. Mathematics of failure:
    Reliability concepts, fitting distribution to failure data. Maintenance management:
    Investment decisions, maintenance profit impact. Maintenance structure:  Preventive, time based, condition based, corrective, design out. Data analysis: Renewable, repairable systems, Laplace trend test, analysis methodology. Optimizing maintenance strategies: Replacement/overhaul age, inspection frequencies, capital replacement, simulation. Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM). Maintenance systems: Components, structure, computer methods. Tribology: Friction laws, lubrication theory, contamination control.
    Maintenance Practice: Systems approach, management approach, modelling.

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  • Module content:

    Basic nuclear physics: definitions and concepts (nuclear reaction, binding energy, cross-sections, moderator, reflector, etc.). Basic reactor physics: diffusion equation and boundary equations, group-diffusion methods, reactor kinetics. Reactor types: pressurised water reactors, boiling water reactors, gas-cooled reactors. Nuclear fuel cycle (including waste disposal). Reactor materials: fuels, moderators, coolants, reflectors, structures, systems or components. Reactor safety: biological effects of radiation, radiation shielding, principles of nuclear plant safety, also with reference to meteorology. Accidents.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to aerodynamics and aeronautics. Fundamental physical quantities of flowing gas. Equations of state. Anatomy of an airplane. Atmospheriology. Basic aerodynamics. Elementary compressible flow. The Kutta-Joukowski Theorem. Introduction to viscous flow. Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers. Skin friction. Transition Flow Separation. Airfoil nomenclature. Lift, drag and moment coefficients. Pressure coefficients. Airfoil data. Wing properties. Circulation, downwash, and induced drag. Span efficiency. Stall. High-lift devices. Drag. Propeller theory. Elements of airplane and flight performance. Range, endurance and payload. Principles of static stability and control.

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  • Module content:

    Tyres: Construction, forces and moments, side force generation, rolling resistance, dynamic characteristics, tractive effort, slip, soft soil characteristics. Vehicle performance: equations of motion, supply and demand, forces acting on the vehicle, prediction of top speed, acceleration, braking, gradient ability and fuel consumption. Vehicle suspension systems: suspension concepts, kinematics, dynamic characteristics. Ride comfort: springs, dampers, suspension models, human response to vibration. Handling: steering systems, low-speed handling, steady-state handling, dynamic handling, under/oversteer, handling tests.

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  • Module content:

    Flow through porous media is relevant to applications such as internal combustion engines, thermal insulation engineering, electronics cooling, filtration, water movement in geothermal reservoirs, heat pipes, underground spreading of chemical waste, nuclear waste repository, geothermal engineering, grain storage, enhanced recovery of petroleum reservoirs and biological science. Introduction to the physical models used in the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in porous materials. Understanding of the transport mechanisms.

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  • Module content:

    Sensors: limit switches, encoders, thermocouples, strain gauges, CCD cameras, various sensors. Actuators: electric motors, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators, shape memory alloys. Signal conditioning: component interconnection, amplifiers, analogue filters, modulators and demodulators, analogue-digital conversion, sample-and-hold circuitry, multiplexers, software and hardware implementation of digital filters and Wheatstone bridge. Control: H-Bridge and PWM motor control, stepper motors, non-linear control of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, PLCs, SCADA systems, industrial Fieldbus, micro-processor control.

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  • Module content:

    Convectiocorrelations; convection, evaporation and boiling; thermal radiation. Heat exchangers: types, regenerators and design. Mass transfer: Fick’s Law, mass diffusion, mass convection, simultaneous heat and mass transfer, porous catalysts. High mass transfer rate theory. Mass exchangers.

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  • Module content:

    Introduction to elements of computer-aided design. Formulation of the optimum design problem. Concepts used in optimum design. Linear and integer programming methods. Numerical methods used for unconstrained and constrained optimum design. Model reduction techniques. Application to interactive and practical design optimisation.

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  • Module content:

    This module contains a comprehensive study of all mechanical systems and processes of a fossil fuel power station. Analysis of steam cycles, combined cycle power generation, fuels and combustion, the draught group, steam generators and turbines, condenser, feedwater and circulating water systems, coal and ash handling, compressor plant, water treatment, the importance of HVAC, control and instrumentation, control philosophies and environmental considerations.

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  • Module content:

    Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations. Both iterative and direct methods are treated. Solutions are applied to both small and large scale systems. Solutions of systems of nonlinear equations. Eigenvalue problems. Numerical approximation strategies. Numerical integration and differentiation. Numerical solutions to initial-value problems for ordinary differential equations, boundary-value problems for ordinary differential equations and partial-differential equations.

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The information published here is subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information. The General Regulations (G Regulations) apply to all faculties of the University of Pretoria. It is expected of each student to familiarise himself or herself well with these regulations as well as with the information contained in the General Rules section. Ignorance concerning these regulations and rules will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression.

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