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Programme: BSc Entomology

02133401
Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences
Minimum duration of study: 3 years
Total credits: 432

Admission requirements

  • The following persons will be considered for admission: a candidate who is in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required Grade 12 certificate with university endorsement; a candidate who is a graduate from another tertiary institution or has been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution; and a candidate who is a graduate of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.

  • Life Orientation is excluded in the calculation of the Admission Point Score (APS).

  • Grade 11 results are used for the provisional admission of prospective students. Final admission is based on the Grade 12 results.

Minimum requirements

Achievement level

Afrikaans or English

Mathematics

Physical Science

APS

NSC/IEB

HIGCSE

AS-Level

A-Level

NSC/IEB

HIGCSE

AS-Level

A-Level

NSC/IEB

HIGCSE

AS-Level

A-Level

5

3

C

C

5

3

C

C

5

3

C

C

30

Candidates who do not comply with the minimum admission requirements for BSc (Entomology), may be considered for admission to the BSc – Extended programme for the Biological and Agricultural Sciences. The BSc – Extended programme takes place over a period of four years instead of the normal three years.

BSc - Extended programme for the Biological and Agricultural Sciences:

Minimum requirements 

Achievement level

 

Afrikaans or English

Mathematics

Physical Science

APS

NSC/IEB

HIGCSE

AS-Level

A-Level

NSC/IEB

HIGCSE

AS-Level

A-Level

NSC/IEB

HIGCSE

AS-Level

A-Level

BSc – Extended programme for the Biological and Agricultural Sciences

4

3

D

D

4

3

D

D

4

3

D

D

24

Other programme-specific information

A student must pass all the minimum prescribed and elective module credits as set out at the end of each year within a programme as well as the total required credits to comply with the particular degree programme. Please refer to the curricula of the respective programmes. At least 144 credits must be obtained at 300-/400-level, or otherwise as indicated by curriculum. The minimum module credits needed to comply with degree requirements is set out at the end of each study programme. Subject to the programmes as indicated a maximum of 150 credits will be recognised at 100-level. A student may, in consultation with the Head of Department and subject to the permission by the Dean, select or replace prescribed module credits not indicated in BSc three-year study programmes to the equivalent of a maximum of 36 module credits.

It is important that the total number of prescribed module credits is completed during the course of the study programme. The Dean may, on the recommendation of the Head of Department, approve deviations in this regard. Subject to the programmes as indicated in the respective curricula, a student may not register for more than 75 module credits per semester at first-year level subject to permission by the Dean. A student may be permitted to register for up to 80 module credits in a the first semester during the first year provided that he or she obtained a final mark of no less than 70% for grade 12 Mathematics and achieved an APS of 34 or more in the NSC.

Students who are already in possession of a bachelor’s degree, will not receive credit for modules of which the content overlap with modules from the degree that was already conferred. Credits will not be considered for more than half the credits passed previously for an uncompleted degree. No credits at the final-year or 300- and 400-level will be granted.

The Dean may, on the recommendation of the programme manager, approve deviations with regard to the composition of the study programme.

Please note: Where elective modules are not specified, these may be chosen from any modules appearing in the list of modules.

It remains the student’s responsibility to acertain, prior to registration, whether they comply with the prerequisites of the modules they want to register for.

The prerequisites are listed in the Alphabetical list of modules.

Promotion to next study year

A student will be promoted to the following year of study if he or she passed 100 credits of the prescribed credits for a year of study, unless the Dean on the recommendation of the head of department decides otherwise. A student who does not comply with the requirements for promotion to the following year of study, retains the credit for the modules already passed and may be admitted by the Dean, on recommendation of the head of department, to modules of the following year of study to a maximum of 48 credits, provided that it will fit in with both the lecture and examination timetable.

General promotion requirements in the faculty
All students whose academic progress is not acceptable can be suspended from further studies.

  • A student who is excluded from further studies in terms of the stipulations of the abovementioned regulations, will be notified in writing by the Dean or Admissions Committee at the end of the relevant semester.
  • A student who has been excluded from further studies may apply in writing to the Admissions Committee of the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences for re-admission.
  • Should the student be re-admitted by the Admissions Committee, strict conditions will be set which the student must comply with in order to proceed with his/her studies.
  • Should the student not be re-admitted to further studies by the Admissions Committee, he/she will be informed in writing.
  • Students who are not re-admitted by the Admissions Committee have the right to appeal to the Senior Appeals Committee.
  • Any decision taken by the Senior Appeals Committee is final.

Pass with distinction

A student obtains his or her degree with distinction if all prescribed modules at 300-level (or higher) are passed in one academic year with a weighted average of at least 75%, and obtain at least a subminimum of 65% in each of the relevant modules.

Minimum credits: 140

Minimum credits:

Fundamental =   12

Core             =   128

Additional information:

Students who do not qualify for AIM 102 must register for AIM 111 and AIM 121.

Fundamental modules

AIM 102 Academic information management 102 Credits: 6.00

Module content:

Find, evaluate, process, manage and present information resources for academic purposes using appropriate technology. Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.

AIM 111 Academic information management 111 Credits: 4.00

Module content:

Find, evaluate, process, manage and present information resources for academic purposes using appropriate technology.

AIM 121 Academic information management 121 Credits: 4.00

Module content:

Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.

LST 110 Language and study skills 110 Credits: 6.00

Module content:

The module aims to equip students with the ability to cope with the reading and writing demands of scientific disciplines. 

UPO 102 Academic orientation 102 Credits: 0.00

Core modules

BME 120 Biometry 120 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

Simple statistical analysis: Data collection and analysis: Samples, tabulation, graphical representation, describing location, spread and skewness. Introductory probability and distribution theory. Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Statistical inference: Basic principles, estimation and testing in the one- and two-sample cases (parametric and non-parametric). Introduction to experimental design. One- and twoway designs, randomised blocks. Multiple statistical analysis: Bivariate data sets: Curve fitting (linear and non-linear), growth curves. Statistical inference in the simple regression case. Categorical analysis: Testing goodness of fit and contingency tables. Multiple regression and correlation: Fitting and testing of models. Residual analysis. Computer literacy: Use of computer packages in data analysis and report writing.

BOT 161 Plant biology 161 Credits: 8.00

Module content:

Basic plant structure and function; introductory plant taxonomy and plant systematics; principles of plant molecular biology and biotechnology; adaptation of plants to stress; medicinal compounds from plants; basic principles of plant ecology and their application in natural resource management.

CMY 117 General chemistry 117 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and chemical bonding using the VSEOR model. Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds. Classification of reactions: precipitation, acid-base, redox reactions and gas-forming reactions. Mole concept and stoichiometric calculations concerning chemical formulas and chemical reactions. Principles of reactivity: energy and chemical reactions. Physical behaviour gases, liquids, solids and solutions and the role of intermolecular forces. Rate of reactions: Introduction to chemical kinetics.

CMY 127 General chemistry 127 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

Theory: General physical-analytical chemistry: Chemical equilibrium, acids and bases, buffers, solubility equilibrium, entropy and free energy, electrochemistry. Organic chemistry: Structure (bonding), nomenclature, isomerism, introductory stereochemistry, introduction to chemical reactions and chemical properties of organic compounds and biological compounds, i.e. carbohydrates and aminoacids. Practical: Molecular structure (model building), synthesis and properties of simple organic compounds.

GTS 161 Introductory genetics 161 Credits: 8.00

Module content:

Chromosomes and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance: locus and alleles, dominance interactions and epistasis. Probability studies. Sex determination and sex linked traits. Pedigree analysis. Extranuclear inheritance. Genetic linkage and chromosome mapping. Chromosome variation.

MBY 161 Introduction to microbiology 161 Credits: 8.00

Module content:

The module will introduce the student to the field of Microbiology. Basic Microbiological aspects that will be covered include introduction into the diversity of the microbial world (bacteria, archaea, eukaryotic microorganisms and viruses), basic principles of cell structure and function, microbial nutrition and microbial growth and growth control. Applications in Microbiology will be illustrated by specific examples i.e. bioremediation, animal-microbial symbiosis, plant-microbial symbiosis and the use of microorganisms in industrial microbiology. Wastewater treatment, microbial diseases and food will be introduced using specific examples.

MLB 111 Molecular and cell biology 111 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

Introductory study of the ultra structure, function and composition of representative cells and cell components. General principles of cell metabolism, molecular genetics, cell growth, cell division and differentiation.

PHY 131 Physics for biology students 131 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

Units, vectors, one dimensional kinematics, dynamics, work, equilibrium, sound, liquids, heat, thermodynamic processes, electric potential and capacitance, direct current and alternating current, optics, modern physics, radio activity.

WTW 134 Mathematics 134 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

*Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 134, WTW 165, WTW 114, WTW 158. WTW 134 does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level and is intended for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only. WTW 134 is offered as WTW 165 in the second semester only to students who have applied in the first semester of the current year for the approximately 65 MBChB, or the 5-6 BChD places becoming available in the second semester and who were therefore enrolled for MGW 112 in the first semester of the current year. 
Functions, derivatives, interpretation of the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, interpretation of the definite integral, applications of integration. Matrices, solutions of systems of equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.

ZEN 161 Animal diversity 161 Credits: 8.00

Module content:

Animal classification, phylogeny, organization and terminology. Evolution of the various animal phyla, morphological characteristics and life cycles of parasitic and non-parasitic animals. Structure and function of reproductive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and digestive systems.

Minimum credits: 148

Minimum credits:

Core             =  136

Elective         =   12

Additional information:

• Students interested in combining with Entomology in a dual major with Biochemistry or Genetics must take BCM 261 as an elective.
• Students interested in combining Entomology in a dual major with Biochemistry must also replace either BOT 261 or MBY 261 with BCM 262.

Core modules

BCM 251 Introduction to proteins and enzymes 251 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Structural and ionic properties of amino acids. Peptides, the peptide bond, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Interactions that stabilise protein structure, denaturation and renaturation of proteins. Introduction to methods for the purification of proteins, amino acid composition, and sequence determinations. Introduction to enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibition. Allosteric enzymes, regulation of enzyme activity, active centres and mechanisms of enzyme catalysis. Examples of industrial applications of enzymes. Practical training in laboratory techniques and Good Laboratory Practice. Techniques for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of biological molecules. Processing and presentation of scientific data.

BCM 252 Carbohydrate metabolism 252 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Biochemistry of carbohydrates. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics. Glycolysis, citric acid cycle and electron transport. Glycogen metabolism, pentose-phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis and photosynthesis. Practical training in study and analysis of metabolic pathways and enzymes. Scientific method and design: Hypothesis design and testing, method design and scientific controls.

BOT 251 South African flora and vegetation 251 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Origin and affinity of South African flora and vegetation types; principles of plant geography; plant diversity in southern Africa; characteristics, environments and vegetation of South African biomes and associated key ecological processes; centra of plant endemism; rare and threatened plant species; biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management; invasion biology; conservation status of South African vegetation types.

BOT 261 Plant physiology and biotechnology 261 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Nitrogen metabolism in plants; nitrogen fixation in Agriculture; plant secondary metabolism and natural products; photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in plants; applications in solar energy; plant growth regulation and the Green Revolution; plant responses to the environment; developing drought tolerant and disease resistant plants.

GLY 163 Earth history 163 Credits: 16.00

Module content:

This module will give an overview of earth history, from the Archaean to the present. Important concepts such as the principles of stratigraphy and stratigraphic nomenclature, geological dating and international and South African time scales will be introduced. A brief introduction to the principles of palaeontology will be given, along with short descriptions of major fossil groups, fossil forms, ecology and geological meaning. In the South African context, the major stratigraphic units, intrusions and tectonic/metamorphic events will be detailed, along with related rock types, fossil contents, genesis and economic commodities. Practical work will focus on the interpretation of geological maps and profiles.

GTS 251 Molecular genetics 251 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Chemical nature of DNA. Replication transcription, RNA processing and translation. Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Recombinant DNA technology and its applications in gene analysis and manipulation.

GTS 261 Genetic diversity and evolution 261 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Chromosome structure and transposable elements. Mutation and DNA repair. Genomics and proteomics. Organelle genomes. Introduction to genetic analysis of populations: allele and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg Law, its extensions and implications for different mating systems. Introduction to quantitative and evolutionary genetics.

MBY 251 Bacteriology 251 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Growth, replication and survival of bacteria, Energy sources, harvesting from light versus oxidation, regulation of catabolic pathways, chemotaxis. Nitrogen metabolism, iron-scavenging. Alternative electron acceptors: denitrification, sulphate reduction, methanogenesis.  Bacterial evolution, systematic and genomics. Biodiversity; bacteria occurring in the natural environment (soil, water and air), associated with humans, animals, plants, and those of importance in foods and in the water industry.

MBY 261 Mycology 261 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Organisation and molecular architecture of fungal thalli, chemistry of the fungal cell. Chemical and physiological requirements for growth and nutrient acquisition. Mating and meiosis; spore development; spore dormancy, dispersal and germination. Fungi as saprobes in soil, air, plant, aquatic and marine ecosystems; role of fungi as decomposers and in the deterioration of materials; fungi as predators and parasites; mycoses, mycetisms and mycotoxicoses; fungi as symbionts of plants, insects and animals. Applications of fungi in biotechnology.

ZEN 251 Invertebrate biology 251 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Origin and extent of modern invertebrate diversity; parasites of man and domestic animals; biology and medical importance of arachnids; insect life styles; the influence of the environment on insect life histories; insect phytophagy, predation and parasitism; insect chemical, visual, and auditory communication; freshwater invertebrates and their use as biological indicators.

ZEN 261 African vertebrates 261 Credits: 12.00

Module content:

Introduction to general vertebrate diversity; African vertebrate diversity; vertebrate structure and function; vertebrate evolution; vertebrate relationships; aquatic vertebrates; terrestrial ectotherms; terrestrial endotherms; vertebrate characteristics; classification; structural adaptations; habits; habitats; conservation problems; impact of humans on other vertebrates.

Minimum credits: 144

Minimum credits:

Core             =  144

Additional information:

Single major track
Option to replace ZEN 361 with ZEN 363. In addition, students must take all the seven modules listed in the fixed curriculum for the final year.

Dual major track
Entomology and Biochemistry combination: Students must take [ZEN 354 + ZEN 355] and [ZEN361 + ZEN 365] and to a total value of 72 credits, and must take [BCM 356 and BCM 357] and [BCM 367 and BCM 368].

Entomology and Genetics combination: Students must take [ZEN 354 + ZEN 355] and [ZEN 361 + ZEN 365] to a total value of 72 credits, and must take [GTS 351 and GTS 354] and [GTS 367 and either BTC 361 or GTS 368] to a value of 72 credits.
• Entomology and Plant Science combination: Students must take [ZEN 354 + ZEN 355] and [ZEN 362 + ZEN 365] to a total value of 72 credits, and must take [BOT 356 and BOT 358] and [BOT 366 and either BOT 365 or BTC 361] to a value of 72 credits.

 

Core modules

ZEN 351 Population ecology 351 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

Scientific approach to ecology; evolution and ecology; the individual and its environment; population characteristics and demography; competition; predation; plant-herbivore interactions; regulation of populations; population manipulation.

ZEN 353 Community ecology 353 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

The scientific approach; characteristics of the community; the community as a superorganism; community changes; competition as a factor determining community structure; disturbance as a determinant of community structure; community stability; macroecological environmental gradients and communities. A field trip will be conducted during the September vacation to the Sani Pass region of the Maloti-Drakensberg Mountains.
 

ZEN 354 Evolutionary physiology 354 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

This module focuses on the integration of physiological systems in the context of animal form and function, and the ways in which evolution shapes the physiological processes that determine the energy, water and nutrient fluxes between animals and their environments. Topics covered include: (i) circulation, gas exchange and excretion; (ii) nutritional ecology; (iii) osmoregulation and thermoregulation; and (iv) reproductive physiology. The major focus of this module is to understand the major sources of physiological diversity, namely scaling, phylogenetic inertia, adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, and applying this knowledge to conceptually link physiological processes at the cellular level to macrophysiological patterns at a global scale.

ZEN 355 Insect diversity 355 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

The extent and significance of insect diversity. Functional insect morphology. The basic principles of taxonomy and the classification of taxa within the Insecta. Insect orders and economically and ecologically important Southern African insect families. Identification of insect orders and families using distinguishing characteristics. General biological and behavioural characteristics of each group. Grouping of insects into similar life-styles and habitats.

ZEN 361 Physiological processes 361 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

This module focuses on the means by which animals can sense and respond to the external and internal environment. Topics covered include: (i) the structure and function of biological membranes; (ii) neurons and nervous systems; (iii) sensing the environment; (iv) glands, hormones and regulation of development and growth; (v) muscles and animal movement and (vi) the initiation and control of behaviour. The implications of these physiological processes for animal conservation and management will be emphasised. A comparative approach will be adopted throughout the module to highlight the commonalities as well as the ways in which animal lineages have achieved similar functional outcomes from different structural adaptations.

ZEN 362 Evolution and phylogeny 362 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

Evolution as a process and pattern, prime movers in evolution: Selection, drift, general population genetics. Population differentiation, clines, subspecies and species, adaptation as a major force in evolution and the panglossian paradigm, molecular evolution. Phylogeography, phylogenetic reconstruction. Evolutionary biogeography. Adaptation, Darwin's formulation, proximate and ultimate causation, genetic and developmental constraints, optimality. Phenotypic models, the comparative method, convergent evolution. Evolution of complex biological systems, origin of life and sex, macro-evolution, punctuated equilibrium, human evolution. Levels of selection. Species concepts.

ZEN 364 Conservation ecology 364 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

This module is intended to provide students with the skills and knowledge that are essential for the conservation of biodiversity. The module focuses on conservation theory and practice (e.g. endangered species, habitat loss, overexploitation, climate change), and has a practical component. The students will be actively involved in planning and executing field projects, and will be responsible for analysing and presenting the results. The students will gain valuable theoretical and practical experience in the field of conservation ecology by being exposed to a number of different taxa.

ZEN 365 Applied entomology 365 Credits: 18.00

Module content:

*It is strongly recommended that students first complete ZEN 355: Insect diversity 355
Impact of insects on economies, human health and well-being. Protection of corps from insect herbivores through monitoring, forecasting and application of the principles of integrated pest management; epidemiology and modern developments in the control of insect vectors of human and animal diseases; insects as a tool in forensic investigations; ecological and economic significance of insect pollinators and current threats to their survival and health. Lecturers will be complemented by practical experiences that provide students with skills in the design, conduct, analysis, interpretation and reporting of applied entomological research.