Mathematical description of waves; Light as an electromagnetic wave; Nature of sources of light; Wave fronts (Huygens principle); Snell’s Law; Index of refraction; Exploration of the laws of reflection and refraction at planar and curved surfaces; Ray tracing methodology to find position, Nature of images and magnification; Thin lens formula; Conjugate foci formula; Lensmaker’s formula; Ophthalmic prisms: characteristics, classification and refractive power; Thin lenses: types, image formation; Cylindrical lenses: Introduction; Optical Systems: Lens combinations (notation, toric lenses); Thick lenses (cardinal points, system power); The Eye: structure and function, reduced eye; Aberrations in general; Eye defects: myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism; Optical apparatus for ophthalmology: invasive / non-invasive, ophthalmic laser, ophthalmoscope, fundus camera, light coagulator.
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