The programme extends over four years’ full-time study, during which period a student radiographer will be allocated to an institution approved by the Department of Radiography and accredited by the Health Professions Council of South Africa for clinical training in collaboration with the University of Pretoria.
The programme has both an academic and compulsory clinical (work integrated learning) component, with students having to complete specified clinical outcomes for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility. Students must comply with the stipulations of the Health Professions Council of South Africa concerning the required clinical outcomes and as determined by the Department of Radiography.
All students are required to complete specified clinical outcomes as in HPCSA accredited training facilities for each year of study. Students are subject to the rules and regulations of the selected facility in which they are placed for the clinical component of the course, whether in public and/or private health sectors.
The following persons will be considered for admission: a candidate who is in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required National Senior Certificate (NSC) with university endorsement; a candidate who is a graduate from another tertiary institution or has been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution; a candidate who is a graduate of another Faculty at the University of Pretoria; and a candidate who is currently studying at a university.
Admission to Health Sciences programmes is subject to a selection process.
Grade 11 final examination results and the National Benchmark Test (NBT) results will be used for the conditional selection of prospective students.
For selection purposes, the sum of the results in six subjects, including English, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, is calculated.
Life Orientation is excluded in the calculation of the Admission Point Score (APS).
The applications of international candidates who come from countries that have medical schools will not be considered for placement in the MBChB programme, except where intergovernmental agreements are in place.
Candidates should note that their conditional admission will be revoked if their APS drops by more than two points in their final school examination results.
PLEASE NOTE that compliance with the minimum admission requirements does not guarantee admission to any programme in this Faculty.
A student who is made an offer but does not accept it cannot defer the offer and must reapply to be considered in the following year.
Transferring students (university experience)
The applications of students who are studying towards a tertiary qualification or have obtained a tertiary qualification must meet the following requirements regarding school subjects and performance levels: They must be in possession of an NSC for degree studies/full exemption certificate and must have attained a performance level of 5 (or 50% HG if completed prior to 2009) for Mathematics and Physical Sciences (or Life Sciences, if required).
If the subjects were not passed in Grade 12, the equivalent subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) must be completed at the tertiary level. University students do not have to write the National Benchmark Test (NBT) or submit any non-academic performance record or CV. In their case selection is based on the results attained in the qualification(s) previously completed, ie they will be considered on the basis of their results achieved in higher education.
The completion of only a three-year diploma or certificate is not considered as university experience, but will be considered in the school-leaver category and admission will be based on the applicant’s Grade 12 and NBT results.
Qualifications from countries other than South Africa
A limited number of places are made available to citizens from countries other than South Africa, with those from SADC countries being given preference. Permanent residents of RSA are not categorised as foreign students. Applications from citizens from countries other than South Africa may also be considered if they are:
citizens or permanent residents of countries which have relevant government to government agreements with South Africa
asylum seekers or refugees
National Benchmark Test (NBT)
The NBT is compulsory for all school leavers who apply for admission to any programme in the Faculty of Health Sciences.
Applicants must write the NBT no later than the middle of July.
English Home Language or English First Additional Language
* Cambridge A level candidates who obtained at least a D in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. Students in the Cambridge system must offer both Physics AND Chemistry with performance at the level specified for NSC Physical Sciences in the table above.
* International Baccalaureate (IB) HL candidates who obtained at least a 4 in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. Students in the IB system must offer both Physics AND Chemistry with performance at the level specified for NSC Physical Sciences in the table above.
Examinations and pass requirements
Consult the general pass requirements of the School of Healthcare Sciences, for the calculation of the final mark in a module, the continuous assessment mark, obtaining a pass mark in modules with practical and/or clinical components, etc.
Subminimum: A subminimum of 50% is required in the written, as well as the practical/clinical components sections of the examinations in all modules in Radiographic Sciences at 100, 200, and 300 level.
A second examination opportunity in a module is granted to students in the following cases: Second examinations are granted according to the stipulations of the general pass requirements of the School of Healthcare Sciences.
Admission to fourth year of study: A student must pass all the modules of the first, second and third year of study in order to be admitted to the fourth year of study
Special examination: Fourth year of study A special examination for a student who failed the module; Clinical Practice in Diagnostic Radiography IV. He or she must undergo a further clinical instruction in clinical training areas and obtain at least 50% in the examination
A student who has not obtained a pass mark in the module Research for healthcare sciences 400 must submit an amended essay at a date determined by the head of department.
Promotion to next study year
Consult the general requirements for promotion to a subsequent year of study under the School of Healthcare Sciences, in this publication. Consult also the general pass requirements of the School of Healthcare Sciences for the calculation of the final marking and module, the continuous assessment mark, etc in the learner guides. All modules with practical and clinical training credits cannot be passed, unless all prescribed clinical hours and practical skills have been completed as per module requirement.
Pass with distinction
The degree is conferred with distinction on a student who has obtained an average of at least 75% in the final-year modules.
Find, evaluate, process, manage and present information resources for academic purposes using appropriate technology. Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.
Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.
Study of specific language skills required in the Health Care Sciences, including interviewing and report-writing skills. *Presented to students in Health Sciences only. (BCur, BDietetics, BOH, BOT, Brad, BPhysT)*
The acquisition of a basic medical orientated vocabulary compiled from Latin and Greek stem forms combined with prefixes and suffixes derived from those languages. The manner in which the meanings of medical terms can be determined by analysing the terms into their recognisable meaningful constituent parts, is taught and exercised. The functional use of medical terms in context as practical outcome of terminological application is continually attended to.
General introduction to anatomy: Anatomical terminology, surface and regional anatomy, histology of basic tissues; ossification, healing and repair. Introduction to osteology. Regional anatomy I: Thoracic skeleton and thoracic soft tissues; osteology; joints and soft tissues of the extremities; osteology and joints of the vertebral column; abdominal surface anatomy; osteology and soft tissue of the pelvis. Skull I: Cranium and facial bones. Radiographic anatomy I: Regional radiographic anatomy, with emphasis on the skeletal components.
*For absolute beginners only. *Only students from the School of Healthcare Sciences and Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology may take this module during semester 2. All other students must take this module during semester 1. Also note that students from the School of Healthcare Sciences, who already possess the language skills taught in this module, may write an exemption examination. The acquisition of basic Sepedi communicative skills with emphasis on everyday expressions and suitable high frequency vocabulary, within specific social situations.
*For absolute beginners only *Only students from the School of Healthcare Sciences and Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology may take this module during semester 2. All other students must take this module during semester 1. Students from the School of Healthcare Sciences, who already possess the language skills taught in this module, may write an exemption examination. The acquisition of basic isiZulu communicative skills with emphasis on everyday expressions and suitable high frequency vocabulary, within specific situations.
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the first year of studies. Students will be involved in patient care and communication in diagnostic radiography, undertake operating of diagnostic radiography equipment, whilst practicing health and safety principles in the moving and handling of patients. Students will be allocated to clinical training platforms where patient/public interactions, and interprofessional skills and behaviours are developed.
This module has 10% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Introduction to radiography. Fundamental ethical principles; consent and history taking in radiography. Professional roles, responsibilities and codes of conduct. Introduction to communication: interpersonal and scientific. Team work. Reflective processes. Introduction to legislation and the professional bodies related to Radiography practice (national and international). Care of the patient. Principles of infection control. Pathological conditions. Overview of imaging modalities and procedures. Radiation personnel monitoring – requirements, methods of monitoring, record keeping, responsibility of radiation protection officers. Practical radiation protection- facility design; safety accessory equipment; safety devices.
Respecting the human rights of vulnerable patient groups.
Basic patient positioning and immobilisation for radiographic examinations. Radiographic examinations: thorax, abdomen, extremities, hip, pelvis, spine and skull. Theoretical and practical instruction is used to integrate basic Science and clinical radiography. Procedural considerations and positioning techniques. Selection of technique factors. Radiation protection. Pathological conditions and image evaluation. Problem-solving. Execution of radiographic examinations and procedures. Trauma.
Introduction to research in health care science – research process.
Leadership and multidisciplinary team work. Healthcare systems and legislation. Determinants of health. Introduction to healthcare models (e.g. community-based care, family-centred care, etc.). Professionalism, Ethical principles. Management of diversity. NB: Only for School of Healthcare Sciences and Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students.
Introduction: Discovery of x-rays, processing principles, handling of x-ray equipment. x-ray beam: production of x-rays, attenuation. Properties of X Rays: importance and influence of Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic radiation on Imaging and Dose, Electron Energy, Target Material, Influence of Filtration. X-Ray Projection Imaging Concepts: Geometry, Radiographic Contrast, Scatter and Scatter Reduction (Control of scatter radiation: production of scatter, effect of scattered radiation on the image, beam restriction devices, grids and grid efficiency), Artefacts and Image Degradation. Radiographic Detectors: Intensifying Screen and Film (, cassettes, intensifying screens, efficiency of rare earth intensifying screens and x-ray film construction), Computed Radiography (CR), Direct Digital Radiography (DDR), Indirect Digital Radiography (IDR).
Principles of conventional and digital radiography image optimisation – Primary exposure factors: mAs, kVp and SID. AEC.(factor which influence the production and recording of images); Principles of technique charts Conventional Image processing: darkrooms Image Representations: Contrast, Spatial Resolution, Noise, Temporal Resolution, Sampling and Quantization Introduction to quality assurance in radiographic imaging. Introduction to radiation protection for patient, personnel and public- radiation units, detection and measurement, radiation dose equipment and area survey. Regulations and operation of radiation equipment. Introduction to digital imaging system.
General principles of pathology, including necroses, reversible cell damage, reparation and abnormalities of growth, circulation disturbances, acute and chronic infections, classification of the spreading of tumours and carcinogenesis. Directed course in systematic pathology, with specific reference to cardiovascular system, respiratory system, locomotor system and neurophathology.
Structure, gas exchange and secretory functions of the lungs; structure, excretory and non-urinary functions of the kidneys, acid-base balance, and skin and body temperature control. Practical work to complement the theory.
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the second year of studies and to build on the competencies developed in the first year of study. Aspects covered within this module include the use of fluoroscopy, with emphasis placed on radiation protection of patients, public and personnel.
Note: This module comprises 25% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Skeletal system: Procedures and techniques for: positioning, patient care, selection of Technique factors, radiation protection, pathological conditions and image evaluation. Problem-solving. Execution of radiographic examinations and procedures. Trauma radiography. Alternative imaging principles and procedures. Apparatus. Radiation protection.
Radiographic procedures: Execution of radiographic examinations and procedures, selection of technique factors, radiation protection, problem-solving, pathological conditions and image evaluation for neonatal and mobile unit procedures. Orthopaedic theatre procedures. Soft tissue examinations using contrast media in demonstration of Genito-urinary system and gastro-intestinal system.. Introduction to pharmacology and contrast media. Introduction to developing research idea and literature review and research question. Patient assessment, education and care by the diagnostic radiographer. Developing professional attitudes as a diagnostic radiographer practitioner. Patient communication-establishing professional relationship. Patient family interactions. Inter-professional management between divisions in radiography discipline. Inter-professional management within trauma, surgical theatre and hospital wards. Psycho-social management of patient.
Principles of project management. Communication principles. Leadership. Health promotion and education, advocacy and literacy. Counselling for health behaviour change. NB: Only for School of Healthcare Sciences and Speech- Language Pathology and Audiology students.
Introduction to radiation therapy: Radiation therapy services organisation. The radiation therapist – Scope of practice; Practice Standards. Cancer management – Cancer incidence; epidemiology and etiological studies; Detection and diagnosis; Prevention. Treatment – Radiation oncology; Surgical oncology; Medical oncology; Immunotherapy; Complementary and alternative medicine. Radiation treatment modalities; Identification and application of radiation therapy equipment and accessories. Key terms related to external beam radiation equipment. Key terms related to radiation dose to be delivered. Radiation beam positioning terms; Patient positioning. Common radiation effects on normal tissue.
Introduction to nuclear medicine: Role of Nuclear Medicine in medical diagnosis and treatment. Principles of nuclear physics and nuclear medicine, nuclear instrumentation, radio chemical pharmacology. Basic approach to clinical nuclear medicine and relevant techniques.
Introduction to radiobiology: • basic background to the field of radiobiology the interaction of different radiation types with the molecules and organelles of the mammalian cell; biological interaction of different radiation types with the cellular dynamics; biological effect of radiation on organs of the body and the whole body; clinical radiobiology in diagnostic radiography.
Film evaluation. Application of technique factors, compiling of technique charts. Films, film technology, image formation and sensitometric properties. Processing, monitoring the processor and processing area. Darkroom, design and chemicals. Digital image manipulation: Pre-Processing, Segmentation, Grayscale Processing, Frequency Processing, Reconstruction, Three-Dimensional Representations, Image Fusion/Registration, Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) and Diagnosis Display technologies: Hard-Copy Printers, Film, Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Other Displays (e.g., Plasma, Projection) Viewing Conditions: Viewing Distance, Image and Pixel Size, Workstation Ergonomics, Adaptation and Masking, Ambient Lighting and Illumination. Quality assurance of conventional, computed and digital radiography systems. Hospital integrated computer patient and imaging system and principles of system management in terms of information capture, display, storage and distribution.
Concepts of research; research process; research studies appraisal; planning and developing literature review; developing research idea and research question; research principles in designing research proposal; research proposal writing.
Digital radiography: data acquisition (equipment, detectors, analogue to digital conversion), image properties, image matrix, bit depth, file formats, data compression. Image processing (filters, frequency, spatial, Fourier transform), contrast adjustment (histogram equalisation, gamma-, linear and logarithmic adjustment), edge enhancement (pixel shifting, subtraction). Image quality (noise, resolution).
Computed tomography: technological developments in construction and design. Data acquisition (parameters, field size). Image reconstruction (fundamental equations and algorithms). Image processing (CT number, window width, window height). Image quality (resolution, quantum mottle, spatial uniformity, frequency modulation transfer function).
Magnetic resonance imaging: principles (spin angular momentum, torque, precession, magnetic moment, spin orientation, lamor frequency), acquisition ( RF pulses, magnetic field gradient, superconductivity, spin echo sequence, weighted images).
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the third year of studies and to build on the competencies developed in the first and second years of study. Aspects covered in this module include the basic clinical practice and image interpretation of excretory urography, angiography, intervention radiology, mammography, hysterosalpingography, bone densitometry, CT scanning, MRI scanning and myelography. Aspects covered within this module to include radiation protection of patients, public and personnel. Community engagement
Note: This module comprises 30% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Cardiovascular system: Selective angiography. Intervention techniques (vascular and non-vascular). Venography. Seldinger technique, contrast media, medication, catheters, guide wires and accessories. Quality assurance and quality control. Patient care. Medico-legal aspects. Pattern recognition. Mammography: Introduction. Principles of soft tissue radiography. Communication and health promotion. Medico-legal aspects. Management of breast disease, patient care, radiation safety and technique factors. Processing requirements. Positioning principles and special procedures. Systematic evaluation of the images. Pattern recognition. Hystero-salpingography: Booking procedures, patient-radiographer relationship, procedural considerations and evaluation criteria. Pattern recognition. Bone densitometry: Principles, bone biology and remodelling, osteoporosis, core competencies for radiographers, physical principles of dual X-ray absorptiometry and other bone densitometry techniques. Ultrasonography: General principles in obstetrics and gynaecology, abdomen and pelvis, musculo-skeletal system. Computer Tomography: Protocols for different examinations. Patient care. Image interpretation. Magnetic resonance imaging: Protocol for the different examinations. Patient care. Myelography.
Community needs assessment. Leadership in community development. Planning and implementation of collaborative community-based interventions. Application of principles of monitoring and evaluation. NB: Only for School of Healthcare Sciences and Department of Speech - Language Pathology and Audiology students.
Informatics: Basic Computer Terminology, Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), PACS, Radiology Information System (RIS), Hospital Information System (HIS), Electronic Medical Record (EMR), Health Level 7 (HL7) Networks. Film digitisers.
Storage: Hardware, Storage Requirements, Disaster Recovery. DICOM: Modality Worklist, Image and Non-Image Objects, Components and Terminology, DICOM Conformance.
Data Compression: Clinical Impact, Lossy, Lossless, Image and Video Formats.
Security and Privacy: Encryption, Firewalls. Contrast media used in 2-D and 3-D imaging procedures (including MRI), overview of chemical make-up and physical properties of contrast agents, patient risk factors, pre-medication strategies, indicators/symptoms of patient reactions, care and treatment of reactions to contrast agents. Image quality optimisation in CT, Artefacts, factors affecting patient dose. Intervention Radiography (including digital subtraction angiography), Mammography, Bone densitometry. Application of MRI imaging of musculo-skeletal and central nervous system in terms of image contrast and factors affecting image formation and pulse sequence. Introduction to Quality assurance and quality control in CT, Intervention Radiography (including Digital subtraction angiography), Mammography, Bone densitometry and MRI. The preparation of patients for contrast media radiographic investigations, technical imaging procedures, and needle placements.
Phlebotomy. Research, quality assurance, imaging procedures, unit management, clinical practice, digital image acquisition and display, ethics and law, patient care, pharmacology and drug administration and safe practice in one (1) of the following electives (to be offered based on feasibility):
Comprehensive quality management for the radiation Science including diagnostic radiography and relevant modalities e.g., mammography, digital imaging, CT, and MRI. Advanced concepts, current quality management theory, accreditation, and audit documentation are covered. Basic principles and practices necessary for effective supervision and leadership in a health care environment. Inter-disciplinary teamwork principles and practice pertinent to radiography. Principles and practices in human resource management in health care settings. Risk management. Management of change and transformation. Ethical and legal issues influence on practice and the environment. Defining advanced practitioner role; participation within professional bodies; Methods to assess professional outcomes; Customer satisfaction survey components; Process and procedures for continuous professional development. Novel working practices Reflective practitioner in radiography; Professional role within the community and responsibilities to the community. Establishing own private practice in diagnostic radiography.
The information published here is subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information. The General Regulations (G Regulations) apply to all faculties of the University of Pretoria. It is expected of students to familiarise themselves well with these regulations as well as with the information contained in the General Rules section. Ignorance concerning these regulations and rules will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression.
Postal Address: University of Pretoria Private Bag x 20 Hatfield 0028