The purpose of this package in law is to provide broad formative education but it does not lead to any specific career outcomes. The student is, however, enabled to continue with the LLB degree (which is career-specific) or a BComHons. The skills acquired may be applied in either the private or public sectors.
The following persons will be considered for admission: candidates who are in possession of a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required Grade 12 certificate with university endorsement; candidates who are graduates from another tertiary institution or have been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution; and candidates who are graduates of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.
Life Orientation is excluded when calculating the APS.
English Home Language or English First Additional Language
* Cambridge A level candidates who obtained at least a D in the required subjects, will be considered for admission. International Baccalaureate (IB) HL candidates who obtained at least a 4 in the required subjects, will be considered for admission.
General Regulations G.1 to G.15 (with the exception of Regulation G.11.2(c)) apply to a bachelor's degree.
A student may not take more than the prescribed number of modules per semester unless the Dean decides otherwise.
A student may take a module not listed as an elective module only if the prior approval of the Dean has been obtained.
A student who is in possession of a bachelor's degree may not present any modules passed for that degree for another field of specialisation or degree in this Faculty. (See General Regulations G.8 and G.9)
A module already passed may only be repeated with the approval of the Dean.
A module passed may not be taken into account for more than one degree or field of specialisation.
It remains the student's responsibility to ascertain, prior to registration, whether all the modules he/she intends taking can be accommodated in the class, test and examination timetables.
The Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences supports an outcomes-based education system and places a high premium on the development of specific academic competences. Class attendance in all modules and for the full duration of all programmes is therefore compulsory for all students.
The Dean has the right of authorisation regarding matters not provided for in the General Regulations or the Faculty Regulations.
Other programme-specific information
Credits will increase if Financial accounting is chosen as a major.
Advisory note: BCom (Law)-students whose aim it is to obtain an LLB degree, must note that one of the requirements for the LLB degree is a language module from the Faculty of Humanities to the value of 12 credits from the following list: AFR 110, AFR 120, AFR 114, ENG 118, ENG 110, ENG 120.
It is advisable for BCom (Law) students to combine Business management with Economics as a major, Financial accounting with Financial management or alternatively Financial accounting with Taxation.
Note: See the alphabetical list of modules for prerequisites of all modules
FRK 122 is a terminating module. If FRK 122 is selected, a candidate will not be able to continue with Accounting at the 200- and 300-level. Also note that FRK 121 may be a prerequisite for a number of other modules (eg FBS 210 and 220) and it is the responsibility of the candidate to ensure that he/she makes the appropriate choice between FRK 121 and 122.
BCom Law students will only be allowed to take Financial management 210, 220, 310 and 320 (FBS 210, 220, 310 and 320) if Financial accounting is also taken at 200- and 300-level.
OBS 124 must be taken as an extra module if OBS is taken at 300-level.
Informatics 281 (extra 3 credits) is compulsory if Financial accounting 311, 321 (FRK 311, 321) are chosen.
Recommended that students taking If Taxation is taken at 300-levelr FRK 211 and FRK 221.
Please note: Students whose aim is to obtain the LLB degree after completion of the BCom in Law degree, is advised to contact the Student Administration of the Faculty of Law for advice on which additional modules may be taken whilst doing their undergraduate study. Please note, however, that permission must be obtained from the Dean of the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences for extra modules to be taken.
BCom (Law) students who wish to register for additional law modules do so in terms of the Faculty of Law yearbook of the academic year in which they registered for the first time.
"Major subject" To be considered a "major subject" the equivalent of four 14-week modules, including two at 300-level, must be passed provided that:
a module passed at 300-level shall only be recognised for degree purposes if the corresponding prescribed module(s) at 200-level has/have been passed, unless the Dean decides otherwise;
the following modules which are offered at 300-level only, are also considered "major subjects": Labour law 311 (ABR 311), Labour relations 320 (ABV 320), and International business management 359 and 369 (OBS 359 and 369); and
only two 14-week modules, or the equivalent thereof, that are not preceded by the 100- and 200-level modules, may be taken for degree purposes. In other words, at least four 14-week modules must be taken at 300-level that are preceded by the 100- and 200-level, except for modules offered on 200- and 300-level only.
It is thus the responsibility of students to ensure before registration, that their curricula comply with all the requirements of the applicable regulations.
Promotion to next study year
According to General Regulation G.3 students have to comply with certain requirements as set by the Faculty Board.
A student must pass at least 4 core semester or 2 core year modules to be admitted to the subsequent year of study.
If a student has passed less than the required minimum of 4 core semester or 2 core year modules, he/she will not be readmitted to the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Such a student may apply in writing to the Faculty's Admissions Committee to be readmitted conditionally – with the proviso that the Admissions Committee may set further conditions with regards to the student's academic progress. The Faculty's Admissions Committee may deny a student's application for readmission.
If a student has been readmitted conditionally, his/her academic progress will be monitored after the first semester examinations to determine whether he/she has complied with the requirements set by the Admissions Committee. If not, his/her studies will be suspended.
A student whose studies have been suspended because of his/her poor academic performance has the right to appeal against the decision of the Faculty's Admissions Committee.
A student may be refused promotion to a subsequent year of study if the prescribed tuition fees are not paid.
A student may be refused admission to the examination, or promotion to a subsequent year of study or promotion in a module (if applicable) if he/ she fails to fulfil the attendance requirements. Class attendance in all modules and for the full duration of all programmes is compulsory for all students.
Pass with distinction
A degree may be awarded with distinction provided the candidate meets the following criteria:
Completes the degree within three years;
Obtains a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 75%;
Repeated passed modules will not be considered. The initial pass mark of module will be used when calculating the GPA.
A degree will only be awarded with distinction to transferees from other degrees in the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, other faculties and from other universities who still complete their bachelor degrees within three years (including the years registered for the other degree and credits transferred and recognised).
The GPA will be not be rounded up to a whole number.
Exceptional cases will be considered by the Dean.
Minimum requirements for bachelor's degrees; semester and year modules; new regulations
Students who commenced their studies before 2015 must complete the programme in terms of the curriculum of the year in which they commenced their studies, or in terms of the curriculum of the year in which they switched to their current field of specialisation. Students who prefer to do so may, however, apply to change over to the latest curriculum, but then they should comply with all the requirements thereof and they may not revert to the regulations of an earlier year.
Students who are registering for a degree programme for the first time from 2015 onward must take the modules indicated under the particular field of specialisation.
Taalkundekomponent: Inleiding tot die Afrikaanse taalkunde met klem op lees-en skryfvaardigheid. Letterkundekomponent: Inleiding tot die Afrikaanse en Nederlandse letterkunde aan die hand van kortverhale en gedigte.
Afrikaans for speakers of other languages (1) *No mother tongue speakers of Afrikaans will be allowed to take this module. A subject for advanced learners of Afrikaans. A basic knowledge of Afrikaans grammar and listening, reading, writing and speaking skills are required.
Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.
*Alternative evening classes - 2 discussion classes per week Introduction to Literature in English (1) This module introduces the study of literature by examining a number of texts representing different genres (poetry, prose, drama). The texts studied here will be mainly from the pre-twentieth century era and may include texts written in English from both Africa and other parts of the world. The aim of this module is to equip students with the critical and analytical skills required for a perceptive reading of poetry, novels and plays.
This module is intended to equip students with a thorough knowledge of English grammar and is particularly useful for those interested in a career in teaching, editing, document design or other forms of language practice.
*Alternative evening classes: 2 discussion classes per week Introduction to Literature in English (2) This module introduces the study of post-nineteenth century literature by examining a number of texts representing different genres (poetry, drama, prose). Texts will be from both Africa and other parts of the world. By the end of this module students should have the background and analytical skills to perceptively read modern and contemporary poetry, novels and plays.
*For LLB and BA/BCom specialising in law The module has both a theoretical and skills component. All elements described below will encompass conceptual knowledge combined with practical application. UNDERLYING JURISPRUDENTIAL ASPECTS OF LAW / THE LAW IN GENERAL (a) A first-year definition of law / the Law (b) The relationships between law and society, law and history, law and politics, law and language (c) Being a law student or lawyer in South Africa (d) Introduction to different perspectives on the law
THE SOUTH AFRICAN LEGAL SYSTEM AND ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT SOURCES OF SOUTH AFRICAN LAW AND THEIR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (a) Introduction to characteristics and components of the South African legal system (b) Mixed legal systems (c) The South African Constitution and its historical development (d) Customary law and its historical development (e) Common law and its historical development (f) Primary and other sources of modern South African law (g) Applying the sources of law to a set of facts and relying on the sources of law to answer a jurisprudential question.
THE ABOVE CONTENT FORMS THE BASIS OF THE SKILLS COMPONENT (INCORPORATING ACADEMIC LITERACY SKILLS) WHICH CONSISTS OF: (a) Conducting research in the library (b) Finding, reading and applying the sources of law (c) Reading, understanding and summarising texts on topics of law (d) Analysing, criticising and improving (“edit”) a piece of writing on the law in a theoretical sense; and (e) Writing a well-constructed essay or paragraph on legal problems and topics of law or legal history.
*For LLB and BA/BCom specialising in law BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE: (a) Law of obligations (contract and delict) (b) Criminal law (c) Law of civil procedure; (d) Law of criminal procedure; and (e) Law of evidence.
ACCESS TO JUSTICE: (a) Courts and alternative dispute resolution; (b) Legal profession; and (c) Access to justice and its promotion in South Africa (the idea, problems, representation in criminal matters, role of different organisations, etc).
THE ABOVE CONTENT FORMS THE BASIS OF THE SKILLS COMPONENT (INCORPORATING ACADEMIC LITERACY SKILLS) WHICH CONSISTS OF: (a) Drafting a simple contract based upon a set of facts (law of contract) (b) Reading, understanding, summarising a case on the law of delict and applying the principles of legal argument and logic to it (c) Summarising, analysing, criticising and improving (“edit”) a piece of writing on the law of evidence (d) Understanding and applying the principles of examination in chief, cross-examination and re-examination to a concrete set of facts with a view to participation in a “moot court” or debate.
This module deals with the core principles of economics. A distinction between macroeconomics and microeconomics is made. A discussion of the market system and circular flow of goods, services and money is followed by a section dealing with microeconomic principles, including demand and supply analysis, consumer behaviour and utility maximisation, production and the costs thereof, and the different market models and firm behaviour. Labour market institutions and issues, wage determination, as well as income inequality and poverty are also addressed. A section of money, banking, interest rates and monetary policy concludes the course.
This module deals with the core principles of economics, especially macroeconomic measurement the private and public sectors of the South African economy receive attention, while basic macroeconomic relationships and the measurement of domestic output and national income are discussed. Aggregate demand and supply analysis stands core to this course which is also used to introduce students to the analysis of economic growth, unemployment and inflation. The microeconomics of government is addressed in a separate section, followed by a section on international economics, focusing on international trade, exchange rates and the balance of payments. The economics of developing countries and South Africa in the global economy conclude the course.
The nature and function of accounting; the development of accounting; financial position; financial result; the recording process; processing of accounting data; treatment of VAT; elementary income statement and balance sheet; flow of documents; accounting systems; introduction to internal control and internal control measures; bank reconciliations; control accounts; adjustments; financial statements of a sole proprietorship; the accounting framework.
Property, plant and equipment; intangible assets; inventories; liabilities; presentation of financial statements; enterprises without profit motive; partnerships; companies; close corporations; cash flow statements; analysis and interpretation of financial statements.
Budgeting, payroll accounting, taxation – income tax and an introduction to other types of taxes, credit and the new Credit Act, insurance, accounting for inventories (focus on inventory and the accounting entries, not calculations), interpretation of financial statements.
The entrepreneurial mind-set; managers and managing; values, attitudes, emotions, and culture: the manager as a person; ethics and social responsibility; decision making; leadership and responsible leadership; effective groups and teams; managing organizational structure and culture inclusive of the different functions of a generic organisation and how they interact (marketing; finance; operations; human resources and general management); contextualising Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in each of the topics.
*For LLB and BA/BCom specialising in law General introduction to Roman law and European law as foundations of South African private law INTRODUCTION TO THE ROMAN LAW OF THINGS (a) Things, real rights, possession (b) Ownership, limitations, acquisition, protection (c) Limited real rights, servitudes, real security
INTRODUCTION TO THE ROMAN LAW OF CONTRACT (a) General principles of the law of contract (b) Specific contracts (c) Quasi contracts
INTRODUCTION TO THE ROMAN LAW OF DELICT (a) General principles of the law of delict (b) Specific delicts (c) Quasi delicts
Descriptive statistics: Sampling and the collection of data; frequency distributions and graphical representations. Descriptive measures of location and dispersion. Probability and inference: Introductory probability theory and theoretical distributions. Sampling distributions. Estimation theory and hypothesis testing of sampling averages and proportions (one and two-sample cases). Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.
Students can only get credit for one of the following two modules: STK 120 or STK 121. Analysis of variance, categorical data analysis, distribution-free methods, curve fitting, regression and correlation, the analysis of time series and indices. Statistical and economic applications of quantitative techniques: Systems of linear equations: solving and application. Optimisation, linear functions, non-linear functions. Marginal and total functions. Stochastic and deterministic variables in statistical and economic context: producers' and consumers' surplus. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are illustrated using simulation within a data science framework. This module is also presented as STK 121, an anti-semester module. This is a terminating module.
Value chain management: functional strategies for competitive advantage; human resource management; managing diverse employees in a multicultural environment; motivation and performance; using advanced information technology to increase performance; production and operations management; financial management; corporate entrepreneurship.
*For LLB and BA/BCom specialising in law (a) General principles of the law of obligations (b) Formation of the contract (c) Content of the contract (d) Interpretation of written contracts (e) Breach of contract (f) Remedies for breach of contract (g) Termination of contractual obligations (h) Drafting of contracts
*For LLB and BCom specialising in law (a) Basic principles of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 (b) Aspects regarding the law applicable to credit agreements (c) Basic principles of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008
In this module an introduction to taxation as a discipline in the South African tax environment is provided. The income tax concepts covered in this module are gross income, special inclusions, exempt income, general deductions, special deductions, prohibited deductions and allowed assessed losses. The implications of a capital gains tax event, specific sections of the Income Tax Act applicable on individuals as well as fringe benefits and specific allowances for individuals are discussed. Concepts such as the prepaid tax system, tax implications of donations tax events as well as the tax implications of a deceased person will be covered. Finally an introduction to the basic principles of VAT is included.
Macroeconomics From Wall and Bay Street to Diagonal Street: a thorough understanding of the mechanisms and theories explaining the workings of the economy is essential. Macroeconomic insight is provided on the real market, the money market, two market equilibrium, monetarism, growth theory, cyclical analysis, inflation, Keynesian general equilibrium analysis and fiscal and monetary policy issues.
Microeconomics Microeconomic insight is provided into: consumer and producer theory, general microeconomic equilibrium, Pareto-optimality and optimality of the price mechanism, welfare economics, market forms and the production structure of South Africa. Statistic and econometric analysis of microeconomic issues.
Macroeconomics Application of the principles learned in EKN 214 on the world we live in. We look at international markets and dynamic macroeconomic models, and familiarise the students with the current macroeconomic policy debates. We also take a look at the latest macroeconomic research in the world. The course includes topics of the mathematical and econometric analysis of macroeconomic issues.
Microeconomics From general equilibrium and economic welfare to uncertainty and asymmetric information. In this module we apply the principles learned in EKN 224 on the world around us by looking at the microeconomic principles of labour and capital markets, as well as reasons why the free market system could fail. We touch on the government’s role in market failures. The course includes topics of the mathematical and econometric analysis of microeconomic issues.
*Only for BCom (Financial Sciences, Investment Management and Law) and BSc (Construction Management , Quantity Surveying and Real Estate) students. Framework and purpose of financial management; understanding financial statements; analysis of financial statements for decision making; time value of money; risk and return relationships; business valuation; short-term planning; current asset management.
*Only for BCom (Financial Sciences, Investment Management and Law) students. The purpose and functioning of management accounting, cost classification; the determination of product costs including raw material costs, labour costs, overheads and its allocation according to traditional and activity-based costing methods, inventory management, the accumulation of costs according to job and process costing systems, the treatment of joint and by-products and the determination of costs according to a direct and absorption costing approach; decisionmaking with reference to cost-volume-profit ratios.
Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Companies Act, the Framework and Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice relating to the following: presentation of financial statements; revenue; investments; provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets; events after the balance sheet date; inventories; income taxes; leases; property, plant and equipment; impairment of assets; intangible assets; investment property, changes in accounting estimates and errors; introduction to financial instruments.
Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice relating to the following: employee benefits; the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates; accounting policies; earnings per share; cash flow statements; interests in joint ventures. Branch accounting. Introduction to consolidations, including basic consolidation techniques for both wholly-owned and partly-owned subsidiaries. Introduction to public sector accounting.
Logistics management The role of logistics in an enterprise; definition and scope of customer service; electronic and other logistics information systems; inventory management; materials management with special reference to Japanese systems; management of the supply chain. Methods of transport and transport costs; types and costs of warehousing; electronic aids in materials handling; cost and price determination of purchases; organising for logistics management; methods for improving logistics performance.
Project management and negotiations: Introduction Project management concepts; needs identification; the project, the project manager and the project team; types of project organisations; project communication and documentation. Planning and control: planning, scheduling and schedule control of projects; resource considerations and allocations; cost planning and performance evaluation. Negotiation and collective bargaining: The nature of negotiation; preparation for negotiation; negotiating for purposes of climate creation; persuasive communication; handling conflict and aggression; specialised negotiation and collective bargaining in the South African context.
Statistical problem solving. Causality, experimental and observational data. Probability theory. Multivariate random variables. Discrete and continuous probability distributions. Stochastic representations. Measures of association. Expected values and conditional expectation. Simulation techniques. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.
Multivariate probability distributions. Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Frequentist and Bayesian inference. Statistical learning and decision theory. Simulation techniques enhancing statistical thinking. Supervised learning: linear regression, estimation and inference. Non-parametric modelling. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical algorithms. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.
**For LLB and BCom specialising in law (a) General introduction and historical background (b) The process of sequestration (c) Effects of sequestration (d) Voidable and void dispositions (e) Overview of administration of insolvent estates (f) Composition, rehabilitation and offences (g) Liquidation of insolvent companies and close corporations
*For LLB and BA/BCom specialising in law (a) General principles of the law of things (b) Constitutional aspects (c) Control (possession and holdership) (d) Ownership (including joint ownership and sectional-title property) (e) Limited real rights (including servitudes, limiting provisions, public servitudes, mineral rights and real security rights)
*For LLB and BCom specialising in Law (a) Elements of negotiability; the bill of exchange, cheque and promissory note; parties to bills, cheques and notes (b) Requirements for validity, negotiation, holdership and acceptance (c) The banker-client relationship; crossings and additions to crossings; the legal position of the drawee and collecting bank (d) Electronic payment methods
The purpose of the module is to enable the learner to calculate the value-added tax liability and to journalise transactions; calculate the normal tax liability (including the determination of taxable capital gains and assessed capital losses) of individuals, companies, estates and trusts,discuss tax principles on value-added tax and normal tax; and calculate and discuss provisional and employees' tax and to object against an assessment.
Public finance Role of government in the economy. Welfare economics and theory of optimality. Ways of correcting market failures. Government expenditure theories, models and programmes. Government revenue. Models on taxation, effects of taxation on the economy. Assessment of taxation from an optimality and efficiency point of view. South African perspective on public finance.
International trade/finance International economic insight is provided into international economic relations and history, theory of international trade, international capital movements, international trade politics, economic and customs unions and other forms or regional cooperation and integration, international monetary relations, foreign exchange markets, exchange rate issues and the balance of payments, as well as open economy macroeconomic issues.
Economic analyses Identification, collection and interpretation process of relevant economic data; the national accounts (i.e. income and production accounts, the national financial account, the balance of payments and input-output tables); economic growth; inflation; employment, unemployment, wages, productivity and income distribution; business cycles; financial indicators; fiscal indicators; social indicators; international comparisons; relationships between economic time series - regression analysis; long-term future studies and scenario analysis; overall assessment of the South African economy from 1994 onwards.
Economic policy and development: Capita select The course provides an introduction to growth economics and also to some topics on development economics. Firstly, historical evidence is covered and then the canonical Solow growth model and some of its empirical applications (human capital and convergence). Secondly, the new growth theory (the AK and the Romer models of endogenous growth) are covered. Some of the development topics to be covered include technology transfer, social infrastructure and natural resources.
*Only for BCom (Financial Sciences, Financial Management Sciences, Investment Management, Internal Auditing and Law) students. Relevant costs; standard costing with reference to application and evaluation; preparation and evaluation of plans, budgets and forecasts; techniques for allocating and managing resources; costing and accounting systems evaluation; techniques used in management decision making; new developments in business and management accounting; case study perspective. Cost management; strategic management accounting; cost estimation and cost behaviour; quantitative models for stock control; application of linear programming in management accounting; various management accounting techniques.
*Only for BCom (Financial Sciences, Investment Management, and Law) and BSs (Construction Management, Quantity Surveying and Reak Estate) students. Cost of capital; determination of capital requirements and the financing of a business to maintain the optimal capital structure; the investment decision and the study of financial selection criteria in the evaluation of capital investment projects; impact of inflation and risk on capital investment decisions; evaluation of leasing decisions; dividend decisions; international financial management. Valuation principles and practices: an introduction to security analysis; hybrids and derivative instruments, mergers and acquisitions.
Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) relating to the following: income taxes; property, plant and equipment; impairment; non-current assets held for sale; intangible assets; investment property; borrowing costs; leases; accounting policies; changes in accounting estimates and errors; segment reporting; certain aspects of financial instruments.
Preparation and presentation of company annual financial statements in compliance with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) relating to the following: the effects of changes in foreign exchange rates; earnings per share; related party disclosure; associates. Complex consolidation issues, including intra-group transactions; dividends; preference shares; revaluations; horizontal, vertical and mixed groups; insolvent subsidiaries; change of interest; consolidated cash flow statement.
Strategy formulation: the deliberate strategy process of formulating a vision and mission statement, conducting internal and external environmental analyses and selecting appropriate strategies. It will enhance an understanding of the level of strategy formulation, gaining competitive advantage in your market place and thinking strategically.
Strategy execution: Strategic management implementation. The role of management in strategy implementation; budgets as instrument in the implementation process; leading processes of change within enterprises; supporting policies, procedures and information systems for implementation in the various functional areas; evaluation and control of implementation. South African case studies to create contextual relevance.
Supervised learning. Linear and non-linear regression. Ordinary least squares and maximum likelihood estimation. Violations of the assumptions, residual analysis. Cross validation. Statistical inference. Bootstrap inference. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.
Stationary and non-stationary univariate time series. Properties of ARIMA processes. Identification, estimation and diagnostic testing of a time series models. Forecasting. Multivariate time series. Supervised learning: introduction to generalised linear models. Modelling of binary response variables, logistic regression. Supporting mathematical concepts. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.
The information published here is subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information. The General Regulations (G Regulations) apply to all faculties of the University of Pretoria. It is expected of students to familiarise themselves well with these regulations as well as with the information contained in the General Rules section. Ignorance concerning these regulations and rules will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression.
Postal Address: University of Pretoria Private Bag x 20 Hatfield 0028