Advanced and applied training to augment theoretical material presented in core and elective modules. Depending on the students’ focus and field of interest he/she can chose per capita topics pertaining to either dairy herd health, beef herd health, feedlot beef production or clinical medicine. Dairy herd health can include in depth reviews on mastitis problems, dairy nutrition, dairy reproduction, lameness, young stock management and associated metabolic conditions. Beef herd health can include veld and pasture management, beef production and nutrition, reproduction and pertinent diseases and conditions. Feedlot beef production can include feedlot nutrition, respiratory anatomy and physiology, respiratory diseases, conditions, diagnosis and treatment, pharmacology, young stock management and production indices. Clinical medicine can include organ, metabolic and deficiency conditions along with the relevant pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment methods. Advanced training in the chosen topics will be offered firstly in the form of seminar presentation and discussions. Clinical applications will be offered in the form of field visits to the relevant chosen areas and fields of interest as well as clinical supervision within the veterinary hospital clinical rotations. Supervised clinical training comprises a minimum 90 weeks. Integration and application of knowledge of health and production problems and evaluation of health status, production and economic effectiveness of dairy and or beef systems will be core.