Prof Willie Nicol

Position Professor
Qualifications B.Eng (Pret),  PhD (Wits), PrEng
Telephone +27-12-420-3796
Fax +27-12-420-5048
E-mail [email protected]

Researcher ID


Educational activities

Biochemical Engineering (CBI310). Click link for online textbook.

Research activities 

  • Bioreactor control
  • Succinic acid production
  • Fumaric acid production

Recent publications

Mokwatlo, S.C., Nchabeleng, M.E., Brink, H.G., Nicol, W., Impact of metabolite accumulation on the structure, viability and development of succinic acid–producing biofilms of Actinobacillus succinogenes (2019), Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Naude, A., Nicol, W., Improved continuous fumaric acid production with immobilised Rhizopus oryzae by implementation of a revised nitrogen control strategy (2018), New Biotechnology, 44, pp. 13-22.

Naude, A., Nicol, W., Malic acid production through the whole-cell hydration of fumaric acid with immobilised Rhizopus oryzae (2018), Biochemical Engineering Journal, 137, pp. 152-16.

Mokwatlo, S.C., Nicol, W., Structure and cell viability analysis of Actinobacillus succinogenes biofilms as biocatalysts for succinic acid production (2017), Biochemical Engineering Journal , 128, pp. 134-140.

Naude, A., Nicol, W., Fumaric acid fermentation with immobilised Rhizopus oryzae: Quantifying time-dependent variations in catabolic flux (2017), Process Biochemistry, 56, pp. 8-20.

Herselman, J., Bradfield, M.F.A., Vijayan, U., Nicol, W., The effect of carbon dioxide availability on succinic acid production with biofilms of Actinobacillus succinogenes (2017), Biochemical Engineering Journal, 117, pp. 218-228.

Bradfield, M.F.A., Nicol, W.,The pentose phosphate pathway leads to enhanced succinic acid flux in biofilms of wild-type Actinobacillus succinogenes (2016), Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100 (22), pp. 9641-9652. 

Brink, H.G., Nicol, W.,Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in chemostat and biofilm cultures (2016), Chemical Engineering Transactions, 49, pp. 613-618.

Salvachúa, D., Mohagheghi, A., Smith, H., Bradfield, M.F.A., Nicol, W., Black, B.A., Biddy, M.J., Dowe, N., Beckham, G.T. Succinic acid production on xylose-enriched biorefinery streams by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation (2016), Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9 (1), art. no. 28, .

Bradfield, M.F.A., Nicol, W., Continuous succinic acid production from xylose by Actinobacillus succinogenes, (2016), Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 39(2).

Salvachúa, D., Mohagheghi, A., Smith, H.  Bradfield, M.F.A., Nicol, W., Black, B.A., Biddy, M.J., Dowe N., Beckham, G.T., Succinic acid production on xylose-enriched biorefinery streams by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch fermentation, (2016), Biotechnology for Biofuels, 9:28.

Krige, A., Nicol, W., Continuous succinic acid fermentation by Escherichia coli KJ122 with cell recycle, (2015), Process Biochemistry, 50(12). 

Bradfield, M.F.A., Mohagheghi, A., Salvachúa, D., Smith, H., Black, B.A., Dowe, N, Beckham, G.T., Nicol, W., Continuous succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes on xylose-enriched hydrolysate, (2015), Biotechnology for Biofuels, 8:81.

Brink, H.G., Nicol, W., Succinic acid production with Actinobacillus succinogenes: Rate and yield analysis of chemostat and biofilm cultures, (2014) Microbial Cell Factories, 13 (1).

Bradfield, M.F.A., Nicol, W., Continuous succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in a biofilm reactor: Steady-state metabolic flux variation, (2014) Biochemical Engineering Journal, 85 (1-7).

Brink, H.G., Nicol, W., The influence of shear on the metabolite yield of Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilms, (2014) New Biotechnology, 31 (5).

Maharaj, K., Bradfield, M.F.A., Nicol, W.,Succinic acid-producing biofilms of Actinobacillus succinogenes: Reproducibility, stability and productivity, (2014) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 98 (17).

van Heerden, C.D., Nicol, W., Continuous and batch cultures of Escherichia coli KJ134 for succinic acid fermentation: Metabolic flux distributions and production characteristics, (2013) Microbial Cell Factories, 12 (1), art. no. 80.

van Heerden, C.D., Nicol, W., Continuous succinic acid fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes, (2013) Biochemical Engineering Journal, 73 (5-11). 

- Author Carl Sandrock
Published by Willem Nicol

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