Selected SIRG publications

Peer-reviewed and refereed journals




  1. Aumer, D., Stolle, E., Allsopp, M., Mumoki, F.N., Pirk, C.W.W., & Moritz, R.F.A. (2019) A single SNP turns a social honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker into a selfish parasite. Molecular Biology and Evolution (
  2. Mumoki, F.N., Pirk, C.W.W., Yusuf, A.A., & Crewe, R.M. (2019) Hydroxylation patterns associated with pheromone synthesis and composition in two honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis laying workers. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology:103230 (
  3. Okosun, O.O., Yusuf, A.A., Crewe, R.M., & Pirk, C.W.W. (2019) Tergal gland components of reproductively dominant honey bee workers have both primer and releaser effects on subordinate workers. Apidologie, 50, 173-182 (doi: 10.1007/s13592-018-0628-5).
  4. du Rand, E.E., Stutzer, C., Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., & Nicolson, S. W. (2019). Antibiotic treatment impairs protein digestion in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Apidologie. (doi: 10.1007/ s13592-019-00718-4).
  5. eLory, T., Funderburk, K., Miller, K., Zuluaga-Smith, W., McPherson, S., Pirk, C. W.W., Costa, C., Weinstein-Teixeira, É., Dahle, B., & Rueppell, O. (2019). Local variation in recombination rates of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome among samples from six disparate populations. Insectes Sociaux. (doi: 10.1007/s00040-019-00736-6).
  6. Ndungu, N.N., Yusuf, A.A., Raina, S.K., Masiga, D.K., Pirk, C.W.W., & Nkoba, K. (2019) Nest architecture as a tool for species discrimination of Hypotrigona species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). African Entomology 27(1): 25-35. (
  7. Neumann, P., Pirk, C.W.W. (2019) Increased response to sequential infections of
    honeybee, Apis mellifera scutellata, colonies by socially parasitic Cape honeybee, A. m. capensis, workers. Scientific Reports: 9, 7582 (
  8. Requier, F., Garnery, L., Kohl, P.L., Njovu, H.K., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., & Steffan- Dewenter, I. (2019) The Conservation of Native Honey Bees Is Crucial. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 34 (9): 789-798 (
  9. du Rand, E.E., Stutzer, C., Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., & Nicolson, S. W. (2019). Antibiotic treatment impairs protein digestion in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Apidologie. (doi: 10.1007/ s13592-019-00718-4).
  10. Aiki, I. P., Pirk, C.W.W., & Yusuf, A.A. (2019). Thermal regulatory mechanisms of termites from two different savannah ecosystems. Journal of Thermal Biology, 85, 102418. (
  11. Azrag, A.G.A., Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Niassy, S., Mbugua, K.K., & Babin, R. (2019) Temperature-dependent development and survival of immature stages of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research: 1-12.(
  12. Mbewe, N.J., Saini, R. K., Irungu, J., Yusuf, A. A., Pirk, C. W. W., Torto, B. (2019)
    Responses of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes to visually attractive stationary devices baited with 4-methylguaiacol and certain repellent compounds in waterbuck odour. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13 (7) : e0007510 (
  13. Olaide, O.Y., Tchouassi, D.P., Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Masiga, D.K., Saini, R.K., & Torto, B.(2019) Zebra skin odor repels the savannah tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13 (6) : e0007460 ( journal.pntd.0007460).
  14. Antwi-Agyakwa, A. K., Fombong, A. T., Deletre, E., Ekesi, S., Yusuf, A. A., Pirk, C.W.W., & Torto, B. (2019). Lemon Terpenes Influence Behavior of the African Citrus Triozid Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 45(11), 934-945. (doi: 10.1007/s10886-019-01123-y).


  1. Mumoki, F. N., Pirk, C. W. W., Yusuf, A. A. & Crewe, R. M. (2018). Reproductive parasitism by worker honey bees suppressed by queens through regulation of worker mandibular secretions. Scientific Reports, 8, 7701.
  2. Aumer, D., Mumoki, F. N., Pirk, C. W. W. & Moritz, R. F. A. (2018). The transcriptomic changes associated with the development of social parasitism in the honeybee Apis mellifera capensis. The Science of Nature, 105, 22.
  3. Yusuf, A.A., Crewe, R.M., & Pirk, C.W.W. (2018), Turning workers into false queens- the role of exogenous pheromones in regulating reproduction in worker honey bees, The Journal of Experimental Biology, DOI: 10.1242/jeb.175505.
  4. Jarosch-Perlow, A., Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W.,  Crewe, R. M.,  & Moritz, R. F.A (2018), Control of mandibular gland pheromone synthesis by alternative splicing of the CP-2 transcription factor gemini in honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica), Apidologie,  (DOI: 10.1007/s13592-018-0571-5).
  5. M.B. Lerata, J. M-S. Lubuma, & A.A. Yusuf (2018), Continuous and discrete dynamical systems for the declines of honeybee colonies, Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, DOI: 10.1002/mma.5093
  6. Nganso, B. T.,  Fombong, A. T., Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Stuhl, S., & Torto, B (2018), Low fertility, fecundity and numbers of mated female offspring explain the lower reproductive success of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in African honeybees, Parasitology, 1-7, (DOI:10.1017/S0031182018000616)
  7. Abdelmutalab, G. A. A., Pirk, C.W.W, Yusuf, A. A., Pinard, F., Niassy, S., Mosomtai, G., and Babin, R. (2018). Prediction of insect pest distribution as influenced by elevation: combining field observations and temperature-dependent development models for the coffee stink bug, Antestiopsis thunbergii (Gmelin), PlosOne (
  8. Njelembo J. M., Rajinder K. S., Baldwyn T., Janet I., Abdullahi A. Yusuf., & Christian W. W. P. (2018), Sticky small target: an effective sampling tool for tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead, 1910, Parasites and Vectors, 11:468, (doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2840-6).
  9. N. N. Ndungu, N. Kiatoko, D. K. Masiga, S. K. Raina, C.WW. Pirk, & A. A. Yusuf (2018), Compounds extracted from heads of African stingless bees (Hypotrigona species) as a prospective taxonomic tool, Chemoecology, 28: 51-60, (doi:10.1007/s00049-018-0256-6).
  10. Njelembo, J. M., Saini, R. K., Torto, B., Irungu, J., Yusuf, A. A., & Pirk, C. (2018), Effects of vector control on the population structure of tsetse (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes) in western Kenya, Acta Tropica, 179: 1-9 (
  11. Ndungu, N., Kiatoko, N., Sole, C. L., Pirk, C., Yusuf, A. A., Raina, S. & Masiga, D. (2018), Resolving taxonomic ambiguity and cryptic speciation of Hypotrigona species through Morphometrics and DNA barcoding, Journal of Apicultural Research, (doi:10.1080/00218839.2018.1426348).
  12. S.W. Nicolson, S. Da Silva Das Neves, H. Human & C. W.W. Pirk (2018) Digestibility and nutritional value of fresh and stored pollen for honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata). Journal of Insect Physiology 107: 302-308 (
  13. N. Steinhauer, K. Kulhanek, K. Ant´unez, H. Human, P. Chantawannakul, M-P Chauzat and D. vanEngelsdorp (2018) Drivers of Colony Losses. Current Opinion in Insect Science (
  14. F. J. Démares, C. W.W. Pirk, S.W. Nicolson & H. Human (2018) Neonicotinoids Decrease Sucrose responsiveness of honey bees at first contact. Journal of Insect Physiology 108: 25-30 (doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2018.05.004).
  15. Nyasembe, V.O., Tchouassi, D.P., Pirk, C.W.W., Sole, C.L. Torto, B. (2018) Host plant forensics and olfactory-based detection in Afro-tropical mosquito disease vectors. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12(2):e0006185. (
  16. Bosua, H.J., Nicolson, S.W., Archer, C.R., Pirk, C.W.W. (2018) Effects of cage volume and bee density on survival and nutrient intake of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) under laboratory conditions. Apidologie 49 (6): 734-746 (


  1. du Rand. E., Human, H., Smit, S., Beukes, M., Apostolides, Z., Nicolson, S.W. & Pirk, C. W.W. (2017). Proteomic and metabolomic analysis reveals rapid and extensive nicotine detoxification ability in honey bee larvae. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 82: 41-51, (doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2017.01.011).
  2. Mcmenamin, A., Mumoki, F., Frazier, M., Kilonzo, J., Mweu, B., Baumgarten, T., Patch, H., Torto, B., Masiga, D., Tumlinson, J., Grozinger, C. & Muli, E. 2017. The impact of hive type on the behavior and health of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) in Kenya. Apidologie, 1-13. (
  3. Okosun, O.O., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. & Yusuf, A.A (2017), Glandular sources of pheromones used to control host workers (Apis mellifera scutellata) by socially parasitic workers of Apis mellifera capensis, Journal of Insect Physiology, 102: 42-49 (DOI:
  4. Démares, F., Yusuf, A.A., Nicolson, S.W., Pirk, C.W.W. (2017). Effect of Brood pheromone on Survival and Nutrient intake of African Honey Bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) under Controlled Conditions , Journal of Chemical Ecology, 43: 443-450 (doi 10.1007/s10886-017-0840-1).
  5. Nganso, B.T., Fombong, A. T., Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Stuhl, C., & Torto, B. (2017). Hygienic and grooming behaviours in African and European honeybees – new damage categories in Varroa destructor, PlosOne, (


  1. Adjlane, N., Bainat, B., Gauthier, L. & Dietemann, V.  (2016).  Atypical viral and parasitic pattern in Algerian honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera intermissa and A.m. sahariensis.  Apidologie 47, 631-641.
  2. Buttstedt, A., Ihling, C.H., Pietzsch, M. & Moritz, R.F.A.  (2016).  Royalactin is not a royal making of a queen.  Nature 537, 22 Sept,  E10-E12.
  3. Cao, L-F., Zheng, H-Q., Pirk, C.W.W., Hu, F-L., & Xu, Z-W.  (2016).  High royal jelly-producing honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in China.  Journal of Economic Entomology 109 (2), 510-514.
  4. Demares, F.J., Crous, K.L., Pirk, C.W.W., Nicolson, S.W. & Human, H.  (2016).  Sucrose sensitivity of honey bees is differently affected by dietary protein and a neonicotinoid pesticide.  Plos One 11(6), e-156584.
  5. Erler, S. & Moritz, R. F. A. (2016). Pharmacophagy and pharmacophory: Mechanisms of self-medication and disease prevention in the honeybee colony (Apis mellifera). Apidologie, 47(3), 389-411.
  6. Eyer, M., Greco, M.K., Lang, J., Neumann, P. & Dietemann, V.  (2016).  No spatial patterns for early nectar storage in honey bee colonies.  Insectes Sociaux 63, 51-59.
  7. Eyer, M., Neumann, P. & Dietemann, V.  (2016).  A look into the cell: Honey storage in honey bees, Apis mellifera.  Plos One 11(8), e0161059.
  8. Forfert, N., Natsopoulou, M. E., Paxton, R. J., & Moritz, R. F. A. (2016). Viral prevalence increases with regional colony abundance in honey bee drones (Apis mellifera L). Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 44, 549-554.
  9. Kurze, C., Dosselli, R., Grassl, J., Le Conte, Y., Kryger, P., Baer, B. & Moritz, R.F.A.  (2016).  Differential proteomics reveals novel insights into Nosema – honey bee interactions.  Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 79, 42-49.
  10. Kurze, C., Mayack, C., Hirche, F., stangl, G.I., Le Conte, Y., Kryger, P. & Moritz, R.F.A.  (2016).  Nosema spp. infections cause no energetic stress in tolerant honeybees.  Parasitology Research 115, 2381-2388.
  11. Kurze, C., Routtu, J. & Moritz, R.F.A.  (2016).  Parasite resistance and tolerance in honeybees at the individual and social level.  Zoology 119, 290-297.
  12. Lin, Z., Page, P., Li, L., Qin, Y.,Zhang, Y., Hu, F., Neumann, P., Zheng, H. & Dietemann, V.  (2016).  Go East for better honey bee health:  Apis cerana is faster at hygienic behaviour than A. mellifera.  Plos One 11(9), e0162647.
  13. Moritz, R. F. A. & Erler, S. (2016). Lost colonies found in a data mine: Global honey trade but not pests or pesticides as a major cause of regional honeybee colony declines. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 216, 44-50.
  14. Neumann, P., Pettis, J. S., & Schäfer, M. O. (2016). Quo vadis aethina tumida? Biology and control of small hive beetles. Apidologie, 47(3), 427-466.
  15. Niu, D-F, Pirk, C.W.W., Zheng, H-Q, Ping, S., Shi, J-H., Cao, L-F. & Hu, F-L.   (2016).  Reproductive traits and mandibular gland pheromone of anarchistic honey bee workers Apis mellifera occurring in China.  Apidologie 47, 515-526.
  16. Pirk, C.W.W., Strauss, U., Yusuf, A.A., Demares, F. & Human, H.  (2016).  Honeybee health in Africa – a review.  Apidologie 47, 276-300.
  17. Strauss, U., Dietemann, V., Human, H., Crewe, R.M. & Pirk, C.W.W.  (2916) Resistance rather than tolerance explains survival of savannah honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.  Parasitology 143, 374-387.
  18. Tosi, S., Démares, F. J., Nicolson, S. W., Medrzycki, P., Pirk, C. W. W., & Human, H. (2016). Effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide on thermoregulation of African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata). Journal of Insect Physiology 93-94, 56-63.
  19. Wallberg, A., Pirk, C. W., Allsopp, M. H., & Webster, M. T. (2016). Identification of multiple loci associated with social parasitism in honey bees. PLoS Genetics, 12(6): 31006097.
  20. Yanez, O., Zheng, H-Q., Su, X-L., Hu, F-L., Neumann, P. & Dietemann, V.  (2016).  Potential for virus transfer between the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana.  Journal of Apicultural Research 54(3), 179-191.


  1. Strauss, U., Dietemann, V., Human, H., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2015) Resistance rather than tolerance explains survival of savannah honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Parasitology.
  2. Neumann, P., Naef, J., Crailsheim, K., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2015) Hit-and-run trophallaxis of small hive beetles. Ecology and Evolution 5(23): 5478:5486.
  3. Nyasembe, V.O., Tchouassi, D.P., Mbogo, C., Sole, C.L., Pirk, C.W.W., Torto, B. (2015) Linalool oxide: generalist plant based lure for mosquito disease vectors Parasites & Vectors 8.
  4. Niu, D.P., Pirk, C.W.W., Zheng, H.Q., Ping, Z., Shi, J.H., Cao, L.F., Hu, F.L. (2015) Reproductive traits and mandibular gland pheromone of anarchistic honey bee workers Apis mellifera occurring in China Apidologie 47: 515-526.
  5. Pirk, C.W.W. (2015) Book review: Pesticide Risk Assessment for Pollinators, African Entomology 23(2):526-528.
  6. Bakkes, DK, Snyman, L.P., Pirk, C.W.W., Sole, C.L. (2015) Performance of Pairwise Shape Dissimilarity Morphometrics on Nonmammalian Taxa (Insecta: Neuroptera: Mantispidae) Journal of Morphology 276:1482-1494.
  7. Okosun, O.O., Yusuf, A.A., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2015) Effects of age and Reproductive Status on Tergal Gland Secretions in Queenless Honey bee Workers, Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis Journal of Chemical Ecology 41:896-903.
  8. Owino, Sang, R., Sole, C.L., Pirk, C.W.W., Mbogo, C., Torto, B. (2015) An improved odor bait for monitoring populations of Aedes aegypti-vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya, Parasites and Vectors 8(1).
  9. du Rand, E.:E.:, Smit, S., Beukes, M., Pirk, C.W.W., Nicolson, S.W. (2015) Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine, Scientific Reports 5.
  10. Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2015) Mandibular gland pheromone contents in workers and queens of Apis mellifera adansonii Apidologie 46: 559-572.
  11. Strauss, U., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Human, H., Dietemann, V. (2015) Impact of Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) colony development in South Africa. Experimental and Applied Acarology 65:89-106.


  1. Yusuf, A.A., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2014) Olfactory detection of prey by the termite-raiding ant Pachycondyla analis Journal of Insect Science 14.
  2. Wahlberg, A., Han, Fan, Wellhagen, G., Dahle, B., Kawata, M., Haddad, N., Simones, Z.L.P., Allsopp, M., Kandemir, I., de la Rua, P. et al. (2014) A worldwide survey of genome sequence variation provides insight into the evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera Nature Genetics 46: 1081:1088.
  3. Owino, Sang, R., Sole, C.L., Pirk, C.W.W., Mbogo, C., Torto, B. (2014) Field evaluation of natural human odours and the biogent-synthetic lure in trapping Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya. Parasites & Vectors 7(1).
  4. Archer, C.R., Köhler, A., Oosthuizen, Vinette, Apostolides, Z., Pirk, C.W.W., Nicolson, S.W. (2014) Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees Journal of Insect Physiology 71:78-86.
  5. Bezahib, G., Adgaba, N., Hepburn, H.R., Pirk, C.W.W. (2014) The territorial invasion of Apis florea. Africa African Entomology 22(4).
  6. Strauss, U., Pirk, C.W.W., Dietemann, V., Crewe, R.M., Human, H. (2014) Infestation rates of Varroa destructor and Braula coeca in the savannah honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) Journal of Apicultural Research 53(4):475-477.
  7. Human, H., Archer, C.R., du Rand, E, Pirk, C.W.W., Nicolson, S.W. (2014) Resistance of developing honeybee larvae during chronic exposure to dietary nicotine Journal of Insect Physiology 69:74-79.
  8. Pirk, C.W.W., Human, H., Crewe, R.M., VanEngelsdorp, D. (2014) A survey of managed honey bee colony losses in the Republic of South Africa - 2009 to 2011 Journal of Apicultural Research 53(1):35-42.
  9. Archer, C.R., Pirk, C.W.W., Carvalheiro, L.G., Nicolson, S.W. (2014) Economic and ecological implications of geographic bias in pollinator ecology in the light of pollinator declines OIKOS 123:401-407.
  10. Archer, C.R., Pirk, C.W.W., Nicolson, S.W. (2014) Nutrition affects survival in African honeybees exposed to interacting stressors Functional Ecology 28(4):913-923 (doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12226).
  11. Yusuf, A.A., Gordon, I., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2014) Prey choice and raiding behaviour of the Ponerine ant Pachycondyla analis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History. 48:345-358.


  1. Human, H., Brodschneider, R., Dietemann, V., Dively, G., Ellis, J.D., Forsgren, E., Fries, I., Hatjina, F., Hu, F.L., Jaffe, R. et al. (2013) Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4).
  2. Pirk, C.W.W., de Miranda, J.R., Kramer, M., Murray, T.E., Nazzi, F., Shutler, D., van der Steen, J.J.M., van Dooremalen, C. (2013) Statistical guidelines for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4).
  3. Neumann, P., Evans, J.D., Pettis, J.S., Pirk, C.W.W., Schäfer, M.O., Ellis, J.D. (2013) Standard methods for small hive beetle research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4)
  4. Hepburn, H.R., Duangphakdee, O., Pirk, C.W.W. (2013) Physical properties of honeybee silk: a review, Apidologie 44:600-610.
  5. Vanbergen, A.J., Baude, M., Biesmejer, J.C., Britton, N.F., Brown, M., Bryden, J., Budge, G.E., Bull, J.C., Carvell, C., Challinor, A.J. et al. (2013) Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11(5):251-259.
  6. Nicolson, S.W., de Veer, L., Koehler, A., Pirk, C.W.W. (2013) Honeybees prefer warmer nectar and less viscous nectar, regardless of sugar concentration Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280.
  7. Barth, M.B., Moritz, R.F.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Kraus, F.B. (2013) Male-biased dispersal promotes large scale gene flow in a subterranean army ant, Dorylus (Typhlopone) fulvus Population Ecology 55:523-533..
  8. Pirk, C.W.W., Neumann, P. (2013) Small hive beetles are facultative predators of adult honey bees. Journal of Insect Behaviour, 26(6):796-803 (DOI: 10.1007/s10905-013-9392-6).
  9. Strauss, U., Human, H., Gauthier, L., Crewe, R.M., Dietemann, V., Pirk, C. .W.W. (2013) Seasonal prevalence of pathogens and parasites in the savannah honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 114(1):45-52
  10. Koehler, A., Nicolson, S.W., Pirk, C.W.W. (2013) A new design for honey bee hoarding cages for laboratory experiments. Journal of Apicultural Research. 52(2):12-14.
  11. Nicolson, S.W., Human, H. (2013) Chemical composition of the low quality pollen of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae). Apidologie. 44:144-152
  12. Yusuf, A.A., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2013) An effective method for maintaining the African termite-raiding ant Pachycondyla analis in the laboratory. African Entomology12(1):1-5


  1. Duangphakdee, O., Hepburn, H.R., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W., Rodim, P., Wongsiri, S. (2012) Waggle dances in absconding colonies of the red dwarf honeybee, Apis florea. Insectes Sociaux. 59(4):571-577
  2. Ya�ez, O., Zheng, H.Q., Hu, F.L., Neumann, P., Dietemann, V. (2012) Scientific note on Israeli acute paralysis virus infection of Eastern honey bee Apis cerana and vespine predator Vespa velutina. Apidologie. 43:587–589.
  3. Dietemann, V., Pflugfelder, J., Anderson, D., Charriere, J.D., Chejanovsky, N., Dainat, B., de Miranda, J., Delaplane, K., Dillier, F.X., Fuchs, S., Gallmann, P., Gauthier, L., Imdorf, T., Koeniger, N., Kralj, J., Meikle, W., Pettis, J., Rosenkranz, P. (2012) Varroa destructor: research avenues towards sustainable control. Journal of Apicultural Research. 51:125-132
  4. Zheng, H.Q., Wei, W.T., Wu, L.M., Hu, F.L., Dietemann, V. (2012) Fast determination of royal jelly freshness by a chromogenic reaction. Journal of Food Science. 77(6):247-252.
  5. Williams, G., Dietemann, V., Ellis, J., Neumann, P. (2012). An update on the COLOSS network and the BEEBOOK: standard methodologies for Apis mellifera research, Journal of Apicultural Research51:151-152.
  6. Bratkowski, J., Pirk, C.W.W., Neumann, P., Wilde, J. (2012) Genotypic diversity in queenless honey bee colonies reduces fitness. Journal of Apicultural Research. 51(4):1-1
  7. Zheng, H.Q., Dietemann, V., Hu, F.L., Crewe, R.M., Pirk, C.W.W. (2012) A scientific note on the lack of effect of mandible ablation on the synthesis of royal scent by honeybee queens. Apidologie. 43:471-473
  8. Tan, K., Yang, M., Wang, Z., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W. (2012) The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 198:319-323
  9. Pirk, C.W.W., Lattorff, M.G., Moritz, R.F.A., Sole, C.L., Radloff, S.E., Neumann, P., Hepburn, H.R., Crewe, R.M. (2012) Reproductive biology of the Cape honeybee. Journal of Heredity. 103(4):612-614
  10. Koehler, A., Pirk, C.W.W., Nicolson, S.W. (2012) Honeybees and nectar nicotine: Deterrence and reduced survival versus potential health benefits. Journal of Insect Physiology. 58:286-292


  1. Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Dietemann, V. (2011) The honeybee disease American foulbrood An African perspective. African Entomology. 19(3):1-2
  2. Dietemann, V., Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2011) Should we be worried about African honeybees? South African Bee Journal. 83(2):78-79
  3. Zheng, H.Q., Hu, F.L., Pirk, C.W.W. (2011) Errors in comb building behaviour in Apis cerana cerana that result in entrapped workers. Insectes Sociaux. 58(3):413-415
  4. Duangphakdee, O., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R. (2011) Waggle Dances and Azimuthal Windows. Psyche. 2011:-
  5. Pirk, C.W.W., Crous, K.L., Duangphakdee, O., Radloff, S.E., Hepburn, R. (2011) Economics of comb wax salvage by the red dwarf honeybee, Apis florea. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 181: 353-359
  6. Carvalheiro, L.G., Veldtman, R., Shenkute, A.G., Tesfay, G.B., Pirk, C.W.W., Donaldson, J.S., Nicolson, S.W. (2011) Natural and within-farmland biodiversity enhances crop productivity. Ecology Letters 14: 251-259.
  7. de Vries, J.L., Pirk, C.W.W., Bateman, B., Cameron, E.Z., Dalerum, F. (2011) Extension of the diet of an extreme foraging specialist, the aardwolf (Proteles cristata). African Zoology 46:194-196.


  1. Zheng, H.Q., Dietemann, V., Crewe, R.M., Hepburn, H.R., Hu, F.L., Yang, M.X., Pirk, C.W.W. (2010) Pheromonal predisposition to social parasitism in the honeybee Apis mellifera capensis. Behavioural Ecology. 21:1221-1226
  2. Altaye, S.Z., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Nicolson, S.W. (2010) Convergence of carbohydrate-biased intake targets in caged worker honeybees fed different protein sources. Journal of Experimental Biology. 213:3311-3318
  3. Tan, K., Wang, Z. .W., Li, H., Yang, M. .X., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R., Radloff, S.E. (2010) Responses of Queenright and Queenless Workers of Apis Cerana to 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic Acid, a Pheromonal Constituent of the Mandibular Gland. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36(9):966-968.
  4. Yusuf, A.A., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Njagi, P.G.N., Gordon, I., Torto, B. (2010) Nestmate Recognition and the Role of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the African Termite Raiding Ant Pachycondyla analis. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36(4):441-448.
  5. Ellis, M., Nicolson, S., Crewe, R.M., Dietemann, V. (2010) Brood comb as a humidity buffer in honeybee nests. Naturwissenschaften. 97:429-433.
  6. Pirk, C.W.W., Boodhoo, C., Human, H., Nicolson, S.W. (2010) The importance of protein type and protein to carbohydrate ratio for survival and ovarian activation of caged honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata). Apidologie. 41(1):62-72.
  7. Phiancharoen, M., Pirk, C.W.W., Radloff, S.E., Hepburn, R. (2010) Clinal nature of the frequencies of ovarioles and spermathecae in Cape worker honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. Apidologie. 41:129-134.
  8. Yang, M.X., Ken, T., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R. (2010) Hetero-specific queen retinue behavior of worker bees in mixed-species colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Apidologie. 41(1):54-61.


  1. Jaffe, R., Dietemann, V., Allsopp, M.H., Costa, C., Crewe, R.M., Dall'Olio, R., de le Ra, P., El-Niwieri, M.A.A., Fries, I., Kezic, N., Meusel, M., Paxton, R.J., Shaibi, T., Stolle, E., Moritz, R.F.A. (2009) Estimating the density of honeybee colonies across their natural range to fill the gap in pollinator decline censuses. Conservation Biology 24(2):583-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01331.
  2. Jaffe, R., Dietemann, V., Crewe, R.M., Moritz, R.F.A. (2009) Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: An insight into the population dynamics of wild African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata). Molecular Ecology. 18:1511-1522.
  3. Zheng, H.Q., Jin, S.H., Hu, F.L., Pirk, C.W.W. (2009) Sustainable multiple queen colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica. Journal of Apicultural Research. 48(4):284-289
  4. Zheng, H.Q., Jin, S.H., Hu, F.L., Pirk, C.W.W., Dietemann, V. (2009) Maintenance and application of multiple queen colonies in commercial beekeeping. Journal of Apicultural Research. 48(4):290-295
  5. Tan, K., Yang, M., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Phiancharoen, M., Hepburn, R., Oldroyd, B. (2009) Worker reproduction in mixed-species colonies of honey bees. Behavioural Ecology. 20:1106-1110
  6. Duangphakdee, O., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, R. (2009) Sun angle time windows for absconding by the dwarf honeybee, Apis florea. Journal of Insect Physiology. 55(11):1009-1012
  7. Dietemann, V., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2009) Is there a need for conservation of honeybees in Africa? Apidologie. 40:285-295
  8. Tan, K., Yang, M., Radloff, S.E., Yu, Y., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R. (2009) Intra- and interspecific brood recognition in pure and mixed-species honeybee colonies, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. Apidologie. 40:184-191


  1. Dietemann, V., Zheng, H.Q., Hepburn, C., Hepburn, H.R., Jin, S.H., Crewe, R.M., Radloff, S.E., Hu, F.L.,Pirk, C.W.W. (2008) Self Assessment in Insects: Honeybee Queens Know Their Own Strength. PLoS One. 3(1):1-2
  2. Moritz, R.F.A., Dietemann, V., Crewe, R.M. (2008) Determining colony densities in wild honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) with linked microsatellite DNA markers. Journal of Insect Conservation. 12:455-459
  3. Ellis, M.B., Nicolson, S.W., Crewe, R.M., Dietemann, V. (2008) Hygropreference and brood care in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Journal of Insect Physiology. 50:1516-1521
  4. Basile, R., Pirk, C.W.W., Tautz, J. (2008) Trophallactic activities in the honeybee brood nest Heaters get supplied with high performance fuel. Zoology. 111:433-441
  5. Strauss, K., Scharpenberg, H., Crewe, R.M., Glahn, F., Foth, H., Moritz, R.F.A. (2008) The role of the queen mandibular gland pheromone in honeybees (Apis mellifera): honest signal or suppressive agent? Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. 62:1523-1531.
  6. Moritz, R., Pirk, C., Hepburn, H., Neumann, P. (2008) Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.). Naturwissenschaften. 95:507-513
  7. Dietemann, V., Zheng, H.Q., Hepburn, C., Hepburn, H.R., Jin, S.H., Crewe, R.M., Radloff, S.E., Hu, F.L. ,Pirk, C.W.W. (2008) Self Assessment in Insects: Honeybee Queens Know Their Own Strength. PloS ONE. 3(1):
  8. Schmid, M.R., Brockmann, A., Pirk, C.W.W., Stanley, D.W., Tautz, J. (2008) Adult honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) abandon hemocytic, but not phenoloxidase-based immunity. Journal of Insect Physiology. 54:439-444.


  1. Dietemann, V., Neumann, P., Hartel, S., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2007) Pheromonal dominance and the selection of a socially parasitic honeybee worker lineage (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.). Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 20(3):997-1007
  2. Human, H., Nicolson, S., Strauss, K., Pirk, C.W.W.Dietemann, V. (2007) Influence of pollen quality on ovarian development in honeybee workers (Apis mellifera scutellata). Journal of Insect Physiology. 53:649-655
  3. Pirk, C.W.W., Neumann, P., Hepburn, H.R. (2007) Nestmate recognition for eggs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 61:1685-1693


  1. Dietemann, V., Lubbe, A., Crewe, R.M. (2006) Human factors facilitating the spread of a parasitic honeybee in South Africa. Journal of Economical Entomology. 99:7-13
  2. Katzerke, A., Pirk, C.W.W., Neumann, P., Bliss, P., Moritz, R.F.A. (2006) Seasonal nestmate recognition in the ant Formica exsecta. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 61:143-150
  3. Schaefer, M.O., Dietemann, V., Pirk, C.W.W., Neumann, P., Crewe, R.M., Hepburn, H.R., Tautz, J., Crailsheim, K. (2006) Individual versus social pathway to honeybee worker reproduction (Apis mellifera): pollen or jelly as protein source for oogenesis?. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 192(7):761-768.
  4. Brent, C., Peeters, C., Dietemann, V., Crewe, R.M., Vargo, E. (2006) Hormonal correlates of reproductive status in the queenless ponerine ant, Streblognathus peetersi. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 92:315-320
  5. Human, A., Nicolson, S., Dietemann, V. (2006) Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest? Naturwissenschaften. 93:397-401
  6. Dietemann, V., Pflugfelder, J., Haertel, S., Neumann, P., Crewe, R.M. (2006) Social parasitism by honeybee workers (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.): evidence for pheromonal resistance against host queens. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. 60:785-793
  7. Dietemann, V., Lubbe, A., Crewe, R.M. (2006) Human factors facilitating the spread of a parasitic honeybee in South Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99:7-13


  1. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Hoelldobler, B. (2005) Role of the queen in regulating reproduction in the bulldog ant Myrmecia gulosa. Animal Behaviour. 69:777-784
  2. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Hoelldobler, B. (2005) Changes in cuticular hydrocarbons of future reproductives correlate with the triggering of worker policing in the bulldog ant Myrmecia gulosa. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. 58:486-496
  3. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Hoelldobler, B. (2005) Role of the queen in regulating reproduction in the bulldog ant Myrmecia gulosa: control or signalling?. Animal Behaviour . 69:777-784
  4. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Hoelldobler, B. (2005) Changes in cuticular hydrocarbons of future reproductives correlate with the triggering of worker policing in the bulldog ant Myrmecia gulosa. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology . 58:486-496


  1. Ramaswamy, K., Peeters, C., Yuvana, S.P., Varghese, T., Pradeep, H.D., Dietemann, V., Karpakakunjaran, V., Cobb, M., Gadagkar, R. (2004) Social mutilation in the Ponerine ant Diacamma: cues originate in the victims. Insectes Sociaux. 51:410-413
  2. Dietemann, V., P, C., Holldobler, B. (2004) Gamergates in the ant Myrmecia gulosa. Naturwissenschaften. 91:432-435
  3. Ramaswamy, K., P, C., Yuvana, S.P., Varghese, T., Pradeep, H.D., Dietemann, V., Karpakakunjaram, V., Cobb, M., Gadagkar, R. (2004) Social mutilation in the Ponerine ant Diacamma: cues originate in the victims. Insectes Sociaux . 51:410-413
  4. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Hoelldobler, B. (2004) Gamergates in the ant Myrmecia gulosa. Naturwissenschaften . 91:432-435.


  1. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Liebig, J., Thivet, V., Hoelldobler, B. (2003) Cuticular hydrocarbons mediate discrimination of reproductives and nonreproductives in the ant Myrmecia gulosa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA . 100:10341-10346


  1. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Holldobler, B. (2002) Caste specialization and differentiation in reproductive potential in the phylogenetically primitive ant Myrmecia gulosa. Insectes Sociaux. 49:289-298
  2. Beekman, M., Good, G., Allsopp, M., Radloff, S.E., Pirk, C.W.W., Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2002) A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis). Naturwissenschaften. 89(10):479-482
  3. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C., Hoelldobler, B. (2002) Caste specialization and differentiation in reproductive potential in the phylogenetically primitive ant Myrmecia gulosa. Insectes Sociaux . 49:289-298


  1. Neumann, P., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, R., Elzen, P.J., Baxter, J.R. (2001) Laboratory rearing of small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae). Journal of Apicultural Research. 40(3-4):111-112
  2. Neumann, P., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R., SolbrigA, A.J., Ratnieks, F.L.W., Elzen, P.J., Baxter, J.R. (2001) Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.). Naturwissenschaften. 88(5):214-216
  3. Elzen, P.J., Baxter, J.R., Neumann, P., Solbrig, A.J., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R., Westerveld, D., Randall, C. (2001) Behaviour of African and European subspecies of Apis mellifera toward the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. Journal of Apicultural Research. 40(1):40-41
  4. Pirk, C.W.W., Neumann, P., Moritz, R.F.A., Pamilo, P. (2001) Intranest relatedness and nestmate recognition in the meadow ant Formica pratensis (R.). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. 49(5):366-374
  5. Neumann, P., Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R., Radloff, S.E. (2001) A scientific note on the natural merger of two honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis). Apidologie. 32(1):113-114


  1. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C. (2000) Queen influence on the shift from trophic to reproductive eggs laid by workers of Pachycondyla apicalis. Insectes Sociaux. 47:223-228
  2. Elzen, P.J., Baxter, J.R., Neumann, P., Solberg, A.J., Pirk, C.W.W., Hoffman, W., Hepburn, H.R. (2000) Observations on the small hive beetle in South Africa. American Bee Journal. 140(4):304-304.
  3. Dietemann, V., Peeters, C. (2000) Queen influence on the shift from trophic to reproductive eggs laid by workers of Pachycondyla apicalis. Insectes Sociaux . 47:223-228


Books and chapters in books

  1. Hepburn, H.R., Pirk, C.W.W., Duangphakdee, O.(2014). Honeybee Nests - Composition, Structure, Function. Springer, Berlin.
  2. Pirk, C.W.W. (2019) African Honey Bees. In: Encyclopedia of Social Insects. C. Starr (Ed.) Springer Verlag Berlin. First Online: 05 December 2019 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-90306-4_2-1
  3. Pirk C.W.W. (2017) Small Hive Beetles (Aethina tumida Murray) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). In: Beekeeping - From Science to Practice. Vreeland and Sammataro (Eds). Springer Verlag Berlin. pp.143-155.
  4. Pirk C.W.W. & Yusuf A.A. (2017) A small hive beetle lesson from South Africa in N. L. Carreck, ed. The small hive beetle in Europe. International Bee Research Association, Groombridge, U.K
  5. .Sole, C. & Pirk, C.W.W. (2011) Genetic considerations. In: Honeybees of Asia (eds: HR Hepburn & SE Radloff) Springer.
  6. Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Sole, C. (2011) Pheromones. In: Honeybees of Asia (eds: HR Hepburn & SE Radloff) Springer
  7. Hepburn, H.R., Pirk, C.W.W., Radloff, S.E. (2011) Energetic aspects of Flight. In: Honeybees of Asia (eds: HR Hepburn & SE Radloff) Springer.


Non-refereed publications and popular articles

  1. Pirk, C.W.W and Human, H. (2018) Parasitic laying worker identification. South African Bee Journal 90: 36-38.
  2. Human, H. and Démares, F.J. (2019) Neonicotinoids: Effects on honeybees. South African Bee Journal 91:14-15.
  3. Mumoki F. N., Pirk C. W.W., Yusuf A. A and Crewe R. M (2019) Do scutellata queens influence the mandibular gland pheromones of the A. m. capensis clone workers and their ability to lay eggs? South African Bee Journal 91 (3): 23-25.
  4. Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W. (2016). News from the labs. South African Bee Journal.
  5. Human, H., Démares, F.J. and Strauss, U. (2016) Honeybee threats in Africa. South African Bee Journal 89: 46-48.
  6. Yusuf Abdullahi Ahmed (2016). Hope for African Mountain honey bees? African mountain honey bees in the light of climate change and threat to honeybees’ diversity. Mountain Research Initiative Blog, March edition
  7. Strauss, U. and Human, H.(2015) Varroa destructor and honeybee viruses in Apis mellifera scutellata in South Africa. Capensis 1: 6.
  8. van der Steen, J., Robert Brodschneider, R., Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W. (2015) C.S.I. Pollen- a citizen science project to understand pollen diversity. South African Bee Journal 87(2):472-475.
  9. Human, H., Crewe, R.M. and Pirk, C.W.W. (2014) Honeybee colony losses in South Africa - feedback on the questionnaires. South African Bee Journal 86: 311-317.
  10. Human, H. (2014) Is ons bye onder bedreiging? Capensis 2: 14.
  11.  Human, H., Dietemann, V., Kryger, P., Pirk, C.W.W. (2012) Honey bee diseases Series 4: Fungi. South African Bee Journal 84 (3): 132-137.
  12.  Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., Dietemann, V., Kryger, P. (2012) Honey bee diseases Series 3: Varroa and viruses. South African Bee Journal 84(2): 69-73.
  13.  Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., Dietemann, V., Kryger, P. (2012) Honey bee diseases Series 2: Parasites: tracheal mites, small hive beetles and wax moths. South African Bee Journal 84: 43-47.
  14.  Dietemann V., Crewe, R., Pirk, C.W.W. & Human, H. (2011) Should we worry about African honeybees? South African Bee Journal 83(2): 78-79.
  15.  Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W., Dietemann, V., Kryger, P. (2011) Honey bee diseases Series I: Bacterial diseases. South African Bee Journal 83: 171-179.
  16.  Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W. (2011) SIRG and Coloss. South African Bee Journal 83: 33-36.
  17.  Human, H., Crewe, R., Pirk, C.W.W. (2010) News from the SIRG at the University of Pretoria. South African Bee Journal 82 (3): 77-78.
  18.  Human, H., Pirk, C.W.W. (2010) Honey bee diseases, Part 1. Southern African Honey Council (SAHC) Newsletter 2(2): 12-15.
  19. Human, H. and Nicolson, S.W. (2008) Bees on the aloe fields: the quality of aloe nectar. South African Bee Journal 80: 42-45.
  20. Pirk, C.W.W. (2009) Kalte Schulter für die Verwandtschaft. Deutsches Bienen-Journal, May issue, 37 [in German, invited].
  21.  Dietemann, V., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2008) News from the bee lab: University of Pretoria. South African Bee Journal 80: 35.
  22.  Pirk, C.W.W. (2008) Sweet Beetles. Labor & More 01/08: 30-31 international issue [invited].
  23. Zheng, H.Q., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M., Hu, F.L. (2008) Beekeeping in China. South African Bee Journal 80(4): 101-105.
  24.  Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2007) Is the honeybee death syndrome a threat to the world? Vision, Business, Ecotourism, and the Environment. Endangered Wildlife Trust Fifteenth Annual, p. 68-69.
  25.  Pirk, C.W.W. (2007) Süsser Käfer - Alarmsignal von Bienen lockt Schädling an. Labor & More. 3/07, 54-55 [in German, invited].
  26. Human, H. and Nicolson, S.W. (2007) Bees on the aloe fields: the quality of aloe pollen. South African Bee Journal 79: 25-27.
  27. Yusuf, Abdullahi Ahmed, & Gordon Ian (2007). Understanding the behaviour and chemical ecology of the African termite raiding ant Pachycondyla analis could lead to the development of a novel termiticide, Mpala News, issue 4:*
  28. Dietemann, V., Pirk, C.W.W., Crewe, R.M. (2006) News from the bee lab: University of Pretoria. South African Bee Journal 78(1): 22-24.
  29.  Pirk, C.W.W., Hepburn, H.R., Radloff, S.E. (2005) Coefficients of genetic variation in honeybees - Akahira and Sakagami (1959) re-visited. Honeybee Science 26(4): 153-158 [Japanese].





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