An overview of the South African fruit industry indicating economic importance and the areas of production of the various crops. Principles governing orchard establishment and orchard management, including location and site selection, crop and cultivar choices, site preparation, orchard layout and design, irrigation, fertilisation, pruning and training, the application of plant growth regulators and disease and pest management. Harvesting practices and the post-harvest physiology of fruit which determines storage protocols and the quality of the fruit reaching the consumer. Climatic requirements, phenological models, cultivars and rootstocks, fruit manipulation, physiological disorders and pest and disease complexes of subtropical and deciduous fruit crops produced in South Africa. The important role fruit production can play in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will be highlighted, with emphasis placed on the sustainable use of resources.