|10137100||Faculty of Health Sciences||Department: Radiography|
|Minimum duration of study: 4 years||Total credits: 500||NQF level: 08|
The programme extends over four years’ full-time study.
The programme has both an academic and compulsory clinical (work integrated learning) component, with students having to complete specified clinical outcomes for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility. Students must comply with the stipulations of the Health Professions Council of South Africa concerning the required clinical outcomes and as determined by the Department of Radiography.
All students are required to complete specified clinical outcomes in HPCSA accredited training facilities for each year of study. Students are subject to the rules and regulations of the selected facility in which they are placed for the clinical component of the course, whether in public and/or private health sectors.
Important information for all prospective students for 2023
The admission requirements apply to students who apply for admission to the University of Pretoria with a National Senior Certificate (NSC) and Independent Examination Board (IEB) qualifications.
University of Pretoria website click here
English Home Language or English First Additional Language
For advice on a second-choice programme, please consult a Student Advisor. To make an appointment, send an email to [email protected].
Applicants with qualifications other than the abovementioned should refer to the Brochure: Undergraduate Programme Information 2023: Qualifications other than the NSC and IEB, available at click here.
International Students: Click here
Important faculty-specific information on undergraduate programmes for 2023
The closing date for all selection programmes is 30 June 2022. Applicants are strongly advised and encouraged to submit their applications as soon as possible after 1 April 2022 and to check the application site (UP Student Portal) regularly.
A transferring student is a student who, at the time of applying at the University of Pretoria (UP) is/was a registered student at another tertiary institution. A transferring student will be considered for admission based on NSC or equivalent qualification and previous academic performance. Students who have been dismissed from other institutions due to poor academic performance will not be considered for admission to UP.
Closing dates: Same as above
A returning student is a student who, at the time of application for a degree programme is/was a registered student at UP, and wants to transfer to another degree at UP. A returning student will be considered for admission based on NSC or equivalent qualification and previous academic performance.
Closing date for applications from returning students is the same as the above
Each student in BRad in Diagnostics must apply to the Registrar of the Health Professions Council of South Africa for registration as a student in BRad in Diagnostics immediately after admission to the first year of study.
Consult the general pass requirements of the School of Healthcare Sciences, for the calculation of the final mark in a module, the continuous assessment mark, obtaining a pass mark in modules with practical and/or clinical components, etc.
A subminimum of 50% is required in the written, as well as the practical/clinical components sections of the examinations in all modules in Radiographic Sciences at 100, 200, and 300 level.
Admission to fourth year of study
A student must pass all the modules of the first, second and third year of study in order to be admitted to the fourth year of study
Chancellor's examination: Fourth year of study
A Chancellor's examination for a student who failed the module; Clinical Practice in Diagnostic Radiography IV. He or she must undergo further clinical instruction in specified clinical training areas and obtain at least 50% in the examination.
A student who has not obtained a pass mark in the module Research for healthcare sciences 400 must submit an amended essay at a date determined by the head of department.
Consult the general requirements for promotion to a subsequent year of study under the School of Healthcare Sciences, in this publication. Consult also the general pass requirements of the School of Healthcare Sciences for the calculation of the final marking and module, the continuous assessment mark, etc in the learner guides. All modules with practical and clinical training credits cannot be passed, unless all prescribed clinical hours and practical skills have been completed as per module requirement.
Exemption from the examination in (ANP) Anatomical Pathology 210
Exemption from the examination may be granted if a student who obtained a module mark of at least 65%, exercises the option to accept it as the final mark.
Passing modules in Anatomy and Physiology
All modalities of a final examination must be written jointly as a special examination, even if part of the relevant examination had already been written during the previous examination period.
The final module mark is calculated from the marks of all the sections/ modalities of the special examination and the continuous evaluation mark. The same criteria as set for a pass mark in a module are applicable here. Students who could not sit the module examination in the examination period due to acceptable reasons, and who are consequently writing the module examination in the supplementary examination period, forfeit the opportunity to be admitted to a further examination.
The degree is conferred with distinction on a student who has obtained an average of at least 75% (not rounded) in the final-year modules.
Minimum credits: 130
Choose SEP 119 or ZUL 119.
Find, evaluate, process, manage and present information resources for academic purposes using appropriate technology.
Apply effective search strategies in different technological environments. Demonstrate the ethical and fair use of information resources. Integrate 21st-century communications into the management of academic information.
Academic reading as well as academic writing and presentation skills, based on the approach followed in the healthcare sciences. *Presented to students in Health Sciences only.
Study of specific language skills required in the Health Care Sciences, including interviewing and report-writing skills. *Presented to students in Health Sciences only. (BCur, BDietetics, BOH, BOT, Brad, BPhysT)*
Introduction to physiological principles; neurophysiology, and muscle physiology.
Body fluids; haematology; cardiovascular physiology, lymphatic system, and body defence mechanisms.
The acquisition of a basic medical orientated vocabulary compiled from Latin and Greek stem forms combined with prefixes and suffixes derived from those languages. The manner in which the meanings of medical terms can be determined by analysing the terms into their recognisable meaningful constituent parts, is taught and exercised. The functional use of medical terms in context as practical outcome of terminological application is continually attended to.
General introduction to anatomy: Anatomical terminology, surface and regional anatomy, histology of basic tissues; ossification, healing and repair.
Introduction to osteology.
Regional anatomy I: Thoracic skeleton and thoracic soft tissues; osteology; joints and soft tissues of the extremities; osteology and joints of the vertebral column; abdominal surface anatomy; osteology and soft tissue of the pelvis. Skull I: Cranium and facial bones.
Radiographic anatomy I: Regional radiographic anatomy, with emphasis on the skeletal components.
Units: standards, conversion, dimensional analysis.
Mechanics: simple harmonic motion, rotation, sound wave propagation.
Electricity: electrostatics, electrodynamics.
Electromagnetism: induction, alternating currents, safety.
Atomic physics: atomic models and quantum phenomena, X-rays, particle-wave duality.
*For absolute beginners only.
* Students from the School of Healthcare Sciences, who already possess the language skills taught in this module, may write an exemption examination.
The acquisition of basic Sepedi communicative skills with emphasis on everyday expressions and suitable high frequency vocabulary, within specific social situations.
*For absolute beginners only
* Students from the School of Healthcare Sciences, who already possess the language skills taught in this module, may write an exemption examination.
The acquisition of basic isiZulu communicative skills with emphasis on everyday expressions and suitable high frequency vocabulary, within specific situations.
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the first year of studies. Students will be involved in patient care and communication in diagnostic radiography, undertake operating of diagnostic radiography equipment, whilst practicing health and safety principles in the moving and handling of patients. Students will be allocated to clinical training platforms where patient/public interactions, and interprofessional skills and behaviours are developed.
This module has 10% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Introduction to radiography.
Fundamental ethical principles; consent and history taking in radiography. Professional roles, responsibilities and codes of conduct. Introduction to communication: interpersonal and scientific. Team work. Reflective processes. Introduction to legislation and the professional bodies related to Radiography practice (national and international).
Care of the patient. Principles of infection control. Pathological conditions. Overview of imaging modalities and procedures. Radiation personnel monitoring – requirements, methods of monitoring, record keeping, responsibility of radiation protection officers. Practical radiation protection- facility design; safety accessory equipment; safety devices.
Introduction to research in health care science – research process.
Leadership and multidisciplinary team work. Healthcare systems and legislation. Determinants of health. Introduction to healthcare models (e.g. community-based care, family-centred care, etc.). Professionalism, Ethical principles. Management of diversity. NB: Only for School of Healthcare Sciences and Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students.
Introduction: Discovery of x-rays, processing principles, handling of x-ray equipment. x-ray beam: production of x-rays, attenuation.
Properties of X Rays: importance and influence of Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic radiation on Imaging and Dose, Electron Energy, Target Material, Influence of Filtration. X-Ray Projection Imaging Concepts: Geometry, Radiographic Contrast, Scatter and Scatter Reduction (Control of scatter radiation: production of scatter, effect of scattered radiation on the image, beam restriction devices, grids and grid efficiency), Artefacts and Image Degradation.
Radiographic Detectors: Intensifying Screen and Film (, cassettes, intensifying screens, efficiency of rare earth intensifying screens and x-ray film construction), Computed Radiography (CR), Direct Digital Radiography (DDR), Indirect Digital Radiography (IDR).
Principles of conventional and digital radiography image optimisation – Primary exposure factors: mAs, kVp and SID. AEC.(factor which influence the production and recording of images); Principles of technique charts
Conventional Image processing: darkrooms Image Representations: Contrast, Spatial Resolution, Noise, Temporal Resolution, Sampling and Quantization
Introduction to quality assurance in radiographic imaging. Introduction to radiation protection for patient, personnel and public- radiation units, detection and measurement, radiation dose equipment and area survey. Regulations and operation of radiation equipment. Introduction to digital imaging system.
Minimum credits: 127
General principles of pathology, including necroses, reversible cell damage, reparation and abnormalities of growth, circulation disturbances, acute and chronic infections, classification of the spreading of tumours and carcinogenesis. Directed course in systematic pathology, with specific reference to cardiovascular system, respiratory system, locomotor system and neurophathology.
Structure, gas exchange and secretory functions of the lungs; structure, excretory and non-urinary functions of the kidneys, acid-base balance, and skin and body temperature control. Practical work to complement the theory.
Nutrition, digestion and metabolism, hormonal control of body functions, and the reproductive systems. Practical work to complement the theory.
This practical-orientated module will provide students with training in basic life support, automated external defibrillation, and first aid treatment to the suddenly ill or injured patient. The theoretical content will be offered in an interactive format where students are expected to master the content as self-directed learning. Practical skills will be demonstrated in the skills laboratory and students will get the opportunity to practice the skills under guidance and supervision.
Systemic anatomy I: Digestive and urogenital systems.
Sensory organs: Skin; eye; ear; nose; tongue.
Skull II: Advanced osteology; base of cranium; openings and sinuses.
Radiographic anatomy II: Systemic anatomy with emphasis on soft tissue components.
X-ray generation: atomic physics, thermodynamics, X-ray tubes, linear accelerators.
Image formation and recording: optics, image intensifiers, solid state physics, digital imaging display and storage systems, image quality and patient dose.
Radioactivity: nuclear nomenclature, half-life, activity, decay modes and nuclear processes, nuclide chart and decay.
Production of radioisotopes: Nuclear reactions, production facilities (cyclotrons, reactors, and accelerators).
Interactions of ionising radiation with matter: charged particles, neutrons, photons, attenuation coefficients, photo-electric Compton contribution.
Radiation Detection: detectors (Geiger, scintillation, TLD, semiconductor, ionisation chamber), counting (spectroscopy, efficiency, statistics), protection.
Dosimetry: units, exposure, dose, absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, dose limits.
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the second year of studies and to build on the competencies developed in the first year of study. Aspects covered within this module include the use of fluoroscopy, conventional tomography, emergency trolley setting, pharmacology, contrast media, paediatric radiography, mobile/bedside and trauma radiography. Radiation protection of patients, public and personnel.
This module comprises 25% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Skeletal system: Procedures and techniques for: positioning, patient care, selection of Technique factors, radiation protection, pathological conditions and image evaluation. Problem-solving. execution of radiographic examinations and procedures. Trauma radiography. Paediatric and mobile radiography, bone age radiography and dental radiography. Alternative imaging principles and procedures. Apparatus. Radiation protection. Procedures and techniques for fluoroscopy.
Radiographic procedures: Execution of radiographic examinations and procedures, selection of technique factors, radiation protection, problem-solving, pathological conditions and image evaluation for neonatal and mobile unit procedures. Orthopaedic theatre procedures. Soft tissue examinations using contrast media in demonstration of Genito-urinary, gastro-intestinal, biliary tract, arthrography , dacrosystography, sialography procedures. Introduction to pharmacology and contrast media. Introduction to developing research idea and literature review.
Patient assessment, education and care by the diagnostic radiographer. Developing professional attitudes as a diagnostic radiographer practitioner. Patient communication-establishing professional relationship. Patient family interactions. Inter-professional management between divisions in radiography discipline. Inter-professional management within trauma, surgical theatre and hospital wards. Psycho-social management of patient.
Principles of project management. Communication principles. Leadership. Health promotion and education, advocacy and literacy. Counselling for health behaviour change. NB: Only for School of Healthcare Sciences and Speech- Language Pathology and Audiology students.
Film evaluation. Application of technique factors, compiling of technique charts. Films, film technology, image formation and sensitometric properties. Processing, monitoring the processor and processing area. Mechanical and chemical processing. Digital image manipulation: Pre-Processing, Segmentation, Grayscale Processing, Frequency Processing, Reconstruction,
Display technologies: Hard-Copy Printers, Film, Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Other Displays (e.g., Plasma, Projection)
Viewing Conditions: Viewing Distance, Image and Pixel Size, Workstation Ergonomics, Adaptation and Masking, Ambient Lighting and Illumination. Quality assurance of conventional, computed and digital radiography systems. Hospital integrated computer patient and imaging system and principles of system management in terms of information capture, display, storage and distribution.
Minimum credits: 123
Systematic pathology – Capita Selecta:
Respiratory and Circulatory system ; Digestive system; Genito-urinary system; Locomotor system; Nervous system; Female reproductive system; Lymphatic and Haematological systems; Intergumentary system; Endocrine system.
Neoplasia associated with viruses.
Developmental tumours and tumour like conditions.
Cysts developing on basis of pre-existing malformations.
Tumours developing in pre-existing malformations.
Definition, Incidence, Epidemiology, Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Male & Female Reproductive system, Breast, Endocrine, Skin, Bones/Joints and Soft tissue, Peripheral nerve, Skeletal muscles, Central Nervous system, Eye, Lung, Head and Neck, Gastro-intestinal tract, Urinary system, Liver and Biliary tract, Pancreas.
Systemic anatomy II: Female reproductive system and breast; Cardiovascular system; Cerebrospinal fluid system. Introduction to neuroanatomy.
Regional cross-sectional anatomy: Cranium, brain; thorax; abdomen; pelvis and limbs.
Radiographic anatomy III: Systemic and cross-sectional anatomy with emphasis on three-dimensional reconstruction.
Concepts of research; research process; research studies appraisal; planning and developing literature review; developing research idea and research question; research principles in designing research proposal; research proposal writing.
Digital radiography: data acquisition (equipment, detectors, analogue to digital conversion), image properties, image matrix, bit depth, file formats, data compression. Image processing (filters, frequency, spatial, Fourier transform), contrast adjustment (histogram equalisation, gamma-, linear and logarithmic adjustment), edge enhancement (pixel shifting, subtraction). Image quality (noise, resolution).
Computed tomography: technological developments in construction and design. Data acquisition (parameters, field size). Image reconstruction (fundamental equations and algorithms). Image processing (CT number, window width, window height). Image quality (resolution, quantum mottle, spatial uniformity, frequency modulation transfer function).
Magnetic resonance imaging: principles (spin angular momentum, torque, precession, magnetic moment, spin orientation, lamor frequency), acquisition (RF pulses, magnetic field gradient, superconductivity, spin echo sequence, weighted images).
Fluoroscopy: Imaging chain, image intensifiers, IQ, CCDs & CMOS detectors, flat panel detectors, cine cameras, fluoroscopic modes of operation, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), quality assurance, dose area product, diagnostic reference levels
Mammography: X-ray tube and beam filtration, X-ray generator & photo timer (AEC) system, breast compression, magnification techniques, digital mammography, radiation dose, average glandular dose.
Ultrasound: Physics of ultrasound, characteristics of sound, US transducers, production and reception of sound, Freznel zone and Fraunhofer zone, interactions between US and matter, US display echo modes, Doppler ultrasound.
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the third year of studies and to build on the competencies developed in the first and second years of study. Aspects covered in this module include the basic clinical practice and image interpretation of excretory urography, angiography, intervention radiology, mammography, hysterosalpingography, bone densitometry, CT scanning, MRI scanning and myelography. Aspects covered within this module to include radiation protection of patients, public and personnel. Community engagement
This module comprises 30% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Needle placement: The preparation of patients for contrast media radiographic investigations, technical imaging procedures, and needle placements. Venous needle placement.
Cardiovascular system: Selective angiography. Intervention techniques (vascular and non-vascular). Venography. Seldinger technique, contrast media, medication, catheters, guide wires and accessories. Quality assurance and quality control. Patient care. Medico-legal aspects. Pattern recognition.
Mammography: Introduction to principles of soft tissue radiography. Communication and health promotion. Medico-legal aspects. Management of breast disease, patient care, radiation safety and technique factors. Processing requirements. Positioning principles and special procedures. Systematic evaluation of the images. Pattern recognition.
Hystero-salpingography: Booking procedures, patient-radiographer relationship, procedural considerations and evaluation criteria. Pattern recognition.
Bone densitometry: Principles, bone biology and remodelling, osteoporosis, core competencies for radiographers, physical principles of dual X-ray absorptiometry and other bone densitometry techniques.
Ultrasonography: General principles in obstetrics and gynaecology, abdomen and pelvis, musculo-skeletal system.
Computer Tomography: Protocols for different examinations. Patient care. Image interpretation.
Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and protocols for the different examinations. Patient care. Myelography.
Contrast media administration: Contrast media used in 2-D and 3-D imaging procedures (including MRI), overview of chemical make-up and physical properties of contrast agents, patient risk factors, pre-medication strategies, indicators/symptoms of patient reactions, care and treatment of reactions to contrast agents.
Community needs assessment. Leadership in community development. Planning and implementation of collaborative community-based interventions. Application of principles of monitoring and evaluation. NB: Only for School of Healthcare Sciences and Department of Speech - Language Pathology and Audiology students.
Informatics: Basic Computer Terminology, Integrating Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), PACS, Radiology Information System (RIS), Hospital Information System (HIS), Electronic Medical Record (EMR), Health Level 7 (HL7) Networks. Film digitisers.
Storage: Hardware, Storage Requirements, Disaster Recovery. DICOM: Modality Worklist, Image and Non-Image Objects, Components and Terminology, DICOM Conformance.
Data Compression: Clinical Impact, Lossy, Lossless, Image and Video Formats.
Security and Privacy: Encryption, Firewalls
Image quality optimisation in CT, Artefacts, factors affecting patient dose. Intervention Radiography (including digital subtraction angiography). Introduction to Quality assurance and quality control in CT, Intervention Radiography (including Digital subtraction angiography), Mammography, Bone densitometry and MRI. The preparation of patients for contrast media radiographic investigations, technical imaging procedures, and needle placements.
Minimum credits: 120
Application of multimodality imaging in Oncological diseases- staging, therapy monitoring and individual risk assessment, and image guided intervention. Neurological diseases. Patient management models in multimodality imaging. Radiographic pathology. Image interpretation of multimodality imaging i.e., CT scan; MRI; PET/CT; PET/MRI; PET/Mammography; Ultrasonography; Radiation Therapy delivery accuracy verification with Image Guided systems. Technical aspects of management of multimodality imaging systems. Quality assurance in multimodality imaging
Three-Dimensional Representations, Image Fusion/Registration, Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) and Diagnosis.
Conducting process of obtaining ethics clearance, data collection, data analysis, research report writing.
Clinical practice to operationalise and integrate the fundamental theoretical components of the fourth-year elective selected and to build on the competencies developed in the first, second and third years of study.
This module comprises 35% of the specified clinical training hours necessary to complete specified clinical competencies for the course in an HPCSA accredited facility.
Needle placement, research, quality assurance, imaging procedures, unit management, clinical practice, digital image acquisition and display, ethics and law, patient care, pharmacology and drug administration and safe practice in one (1) of the following electives (to be offered based on feasibility):
Comprehensive quality management for the radiation Science including diagnostic radiography and relevant modalities e.g., mammography, digital imaging, CT, and MRI. Advanced concepts, current quality management theory, accreditation, and audit documentation are covered. Basic principles and practices necessary for effective supervision and leadership in a health care environment. Inter-disciplinary teamwork principles and practice pertinent to radiography. Principles and practices in human resource management in health care settings. Risk management. Management of change and transformation. Ethical and legal issues influence on practice and the environment. Defining advanced practitioner role; participation within professional bodies; Methods to assess professional outcomes; Customer satisfaction survey components;
Process and procedures for continuous professional development. Novel working practices Reflective practitioner in radiography; Professional role within the community and responsibilities to the community. Establishing own private practice in diagnostic radiography.
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