UP Law's Associate Professor Martha M Bradley teaches at 45th Advanced Course on International Humanitarian Law

Posted on May 24, 2022


The University of Pretoria (UP) is proud to announce that Associate Professor Martha M Bradley in its Department of Public Law has been part of the teaching staff complement at the 45th Advanced Course on International Humanitarian Law (IHL) in Sanremo, Italy, from 16 to 20 May 2022.  The weeklong intensive course was designed to refine and deepen participants’ understanding of key areas in IHL to equip attendees to advise on complex issues and novel situations. 

The course focused on key Jus ad Bellum concepts, which underpin and frame operations, from where it proceeded to a detailed examination of fundamental Jus in Bello concepts and principles in International Armed Conflicts (IAC) and Non-international Armed Conflicts (NIAC) set against current operational contexts. Bradley’s presentations focussed on ‘conflict classification, the law of non-international armed conflict and the interplay between international human rights law and international humanitarian law in conflict settings’.

According to the website of the International Committee of the Red Cross, ‘IHL applies to the belligerent parties irrespective of the reasons for the conflict or the justness of the causes for which they are fighting. If it were otherwise, implementing the law would be impossible, since every party would claim to be a victim of aggression. Moreover, IHL is intended to protect victims of armed conflicts regardless of party affiliation. That is why jus in bello must remain independent of jus ad bellum.’

In addition to an eminent faculty of academic speakers, many sessions included experienced military operators.  Bradley shared the floor with co-presenters Professor Charles Garraway CBE Fellow, University of Essex, UK, Air Commodore (Ret) William Boothby, Associate Fellow, Geneva Centre For Security and Policy, UK; Prof Noam Lubell, University Of Essex; Major Dr Jenny Maddocks, UK Army; and Dr Sandra Kraehnemann, Thematic Legal Advisor Geneva Call.

‘The Faculty of Law (UP Law) is proud of Professor Bradley representing us on such a prestigious international and very relevant and topical platform’, stated Dean Professor Elsabe Schoeman in her note of appreciation and congratulations.


According to the International Committee of the Red Cross, 'Jus ad Bellum refers to the conditions under which States may resort to war or to the use of armed force in general. The prohibition against the use of force amongst States and the exceptions to it (self-defence and United Nations authorisation for the use of force), set out in the United Nations Charter of 1945, are the core ingredients of Jus ad Bellum. Jus in Bello regulates the conduct of parties engaged in an armed conflict. IHL is synonymous with Jus in Bello; it seeks to minimise suffering in armed conflicts, notably by protecting and assisting all victims of armed conflict to the greatest extent possible. - Author

Above:  Associate Professor Martha Bradley with Professor Charles Garraway, CBE Fellow, University of Essex, UK and (right) Colonel Mark Dakers, Director of Military Department, IHL.


- Author Elzet Hurter
Published by Elzet Hurter

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