**RFI 110 Radiation Physics**

Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, field, potential. Direct currents: resistors, Ohm’s law. Capacitors: capacitance, series, parallel, energy. Magnetism: force on a moving charge, electric motor. Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, Lenz’s Law, generators. Alternating currents: average and rms value, three phase, rectification, transformers. Electrical safety. Atomic structure: ionization, excitation. X-rays: production, absorption.

**Lecturer:** Prof LJ Bredell

**RFI 210 Radiation Physics**

X-ray generator: transformer, energy losses, rectifiers, capacitor-discharge generators, kVp- and mA-control, high-voltage cables. Image intensifiers: design, brightness gain, coupling systems. TV-camera and monitor: design, video signal, scanning, image quality. Optics: reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, mirrors, lenses, thin lens formula, lens aberrations, fiber optics, lasers, laser camera. Computers: hardware, digital principles and terminology, data storage.

**Lecturer:**

**RFI 211 Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection**

Interactions of photons with matter: attenuation processes, HVL. Effects of photons in matter: luminescence, fluorescence. Measurement of x-ray quantity: Roëntgen, ionisation chambers. Ionization radiation detection apparatus: Geiger-Muller counter, scintillation detector, TLD-reader. Quality of radiation beams: HVL, other methods of quality statement, filters. Clinical radiation generators: kV- and MV X-rays, Co60, accelerated particles. Radiation protection: dosage equivalents and effective dosage equivalents, shielding, personnel monitoring.

**Lecturer:**

**RFI 310 Radiation Physics**

Computed tomography: CT-generations. Equipment: x-ray tube, collimators, detectors. Image renconstruction: fundamental equations, algorithms. Image properties: field size, image matrix, voxel, pixel, CT-number, window width and height. Image quality: spatial resolution, contrast resolution, quantum mottle, spatial uniformity and frequency. Image processing: edge enhancement, pixel shifting and subtraction. Digital radiography: X-ray equipment, analog to digital conversion, linear and logarithmic subtraction, image noise. Ultrasound: theory, transducers, piezo-electric crystals, resonant frequency, interaction with matter, acoustic impedance, Doppler techniques. Magnetic resonance: medical applications.

**Lecturer:**

**FSK 116 Engineering Physics**

Introductory mathematics: symbols, exponents, logarithms, angles in degrees, radial measure, goniometry, differentiation, and integration. Motion along a straight line: position and displacement, acceleration. Vectors: adding vectors, components, multiplying vectors. Motion in two and three dimensions: projectile motion, circular motion. Force and motion: Newton's law, force, friction. Kinetic energy and work: work, power. Potential energy: centre of mass, linear momentum. Collisions: impulse and linear momentum, elastic collisions, inelastic collisions. Rotation: kinetic energy of rotation, torque. Oscillations and waves: simple harmonic motion, types of waves, wavelength and frequency, interference of waves, standing waves, the Doppler effect. Temperature, heat and the first law of thermodynamics.

**Lecturer: **Mr Q Odendaal

**FSK 176 Engineering Physics**

(This course is identical to the first semester course, but only presented in the second semester)

Introductory mathematics: symbols, exponents, logarithms, angles in degrees, radial measure, goniometry, differentiation, and integration. Motion along a straight line: position and displacement, acceleration. Vectors: adding vectors, components, multiplying vectors. Motion in two and three dimensions: projectile motion, circular motion. Force and motion: Newton's law, force, friction. Kinetic energy and work: work, power. Potential energy: centre of mass, linear momentum. Collisions: impulse and linear momentum, elastic collisions, inelastic collisions. Rotation: kinetic energy of rotation, torque. Oscillations and waves: simple harmonic motion, types of waves, wavelength and frequency, interference of waves, standing waves, the Doppler effect. Temperature, heat and the first law of thermodynamics.

**Lecturer:** Dr J Nel

Physics for Medical Specialisation

**MFK 800 Medical Physics
MFK 801 Medical Physics**

Mathematical description of waves; Light as an electromagnetic wave; Nature of sources of light; Wave fronts (Huygens principle); Snell’s Law; Index of refraction; Exploration of the laws of reflection and refraction at planar and curved surfaces; Ray tracing methodology to find position, Nature of images and magnification; Thin lens formula; Conjugate foci formula; Lensmaker’s formula; Ophthalmic prisms: characteristics, classification and refractive power; Thin lenses: types, image formation; Cylindrical lenses: Introduction; Optical systems: Lens combinations (notation, toric lenses); Thick lenses (cardinal points, system power); The eye: structure and function, reduced eye; aberrations in general; eye defects: myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism; Optical apparatus for ophthalmology: invasive/non-invasive, ophthalmic laser, ophthalmoscope, fundus camera, light coagulator.

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