Identification of source materials, physical and chemical properties of waste. Release and transport mechanisms from source to air, groundwater, soil. Primary pathways of contaminants including sorption, volatilisation, biotic and abiotic transformations. Toxicology: absorption, distribution, biochemical transformation, and secretion of chemicals. Acute and chronic toxicity quantification and evaluation of risk. Hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterisation. Minimum requirements for the handling, classification and disposal of hazardous waste. Minimum requirements for waste disposal by landfill. Minimum requirements for water monitoring at waste management facilities. Recycling and resource management. Waste prevention, minimisation and optimisation.