Separation methods: Extraction, multiple extraction, chromatographic systems. Spectroscopy: Construction of instruments, atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry, surface analysis techniques. Mass spectrometry. These techniques are discussed in terms of their use in environmental analysis and the value they contribute to meeting the UN sustainable development goals (#3,6 & 11). Instrumental electrochemistry. The relevance of electrochemistry to providing affordable and clean energy (UN SDG#7) is addressed.