The first, second and third laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy and heat capacity. The criteria for equilibrium, Gibbs free energy, chemical potential, partial molar Gibbs free energy, activity, activity coefficient and the equilibrium constant. Solution thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal solutions, as well as solution models. Ellingham, Kellogg and Pourbaix diagrams. The thermodynamic principles are applied to metallurgical processes. Applications also include stoichiometry and mass balance problems, as well as the calculation of energy balances.