## Core modules

Module content:

Electronics (14 lectures)

Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits, superposition principle, RC, LC and LRC circuits. Semiconductor diode. Bipolar transistor. Operational amplifiers. Computer controlled instrumentation.

Electromagnetism (21 lectures)

Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, divergence and curl of E, Gauss’ law, Laplace’s equation, image charge problems, multipole expansion.

Magnetostatics: Lorenz force, Biot-Savart law, divergence and curl of magnetic field strength, Ampère’s law, magnetic vector potential, multipole expansion, boundary conditions.

Electrodynamics: Electromotive force, electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s equations, wave equation.

Electric and magnetic fields in matter: Polarisation, electric displacement and Gauss’s law in dielectrics, linear dielectrics. Magnetisation (diamagnets, paramagnets, ferromagnets), auxiliary field H and Ampère’s law in magnetised materials, linear and nonlinear media.

Quantum mechanics (28 lectures)

The Schrödinger equation, the statistical interpretation of the wave function, momentum, the uncertainty principle, the time-independent Schrödinger equation, stationary states, the infinite square well potential, the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, the Delta-Function potential, the finite square well potential, Hilbert spaces, observables, eigen functions of a Hermitian operator, Dirac notation, the Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum spin.

Module content:

Statistical mechanics (28 lectures)

Isolated systems in thermodynamical equilibrium. Systems in equilibrium with a heat bath: the canonical ensemble, Gibbs' entropic formula, classical statistical mechanics, energy equipartition theorem, thermodynamic potentials, paramagnetism.

The classical limit of perfect gases: non-distinguishable character of quantum particles, the equation of state of the classical ideal gas. Quantum perfect gases: Black body radiation, the grand canonical ensemble, Fermi-Dirac distribution, the free electron gas in metals, the Bose-Einstein distribution, Bose-Einstein condensation.

Solid state physics (28 lectures)

Crystal structures, the reciprocal lattice, x-ray diffraction, lattice vibration, the Debye model, characteristics of solids, the free electron model, Pauli paramagnetism, electronic heat capacity, the relaxation time, electrical conduction, the classical Hall effect, thermal conduction in metals, failures of the free electron model, the independent electron model, band theory of solids.

Computational Physics and modelling. Assessment will be done through a portfolio of project reports. The topics for the projects will be selected from various sub-disciplines of Physics.

## Elective modules

Module content:

Theory: Molecular quantum mechanics. Introduction: Shortcomings of classical physics, dynamics of microscopic systems, quantum mechanical principles, translational, vibrational and rotational movement. Atomic structure and spectra: Atomic hydrogen, multiple electron systems, spectra of complex atoms, molecular structure, the hydrogen molecule ion, diatomic and polyatomic molecules, structure and properties of molecules. Molecules in motion: Viscosity, diffusion, mobility. Surface chemistry: Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, surface tension, heterogeneous catalytic rate reactions, capillarity.

Module content:

Theory: Separation methods: Extraction, multiple extraction, chromatographic systems. Spectroscopy: Construction of instruments, atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry, surface analysis techniques. Mass spectrometry. Instrumental electrochemistry.

Module content:

Theory: NMR spectroscopy: applications. Aromatic chemistry, Synthetic methodology in organic chemistry. Carbon-carbon bond formation: alkylation at nucleophilic carbon sites, aldol and related condensations, Wittig and related reactions, acylation of carbanions (Claisen condensation).

Module content:

Theory: Structure and bonding in inorganic chemistry. Molecular orbital approach, diatomic and polyatomic molecules, three-centre bonds, metal-metal bonds, transition metal complexes, magnetic properties, electronic spectra, reactivity and reaction mechanisms, reaction types, acid-base concepts, non-aqueous solvents, special topics.

Module content:

The module focuses on contemporary environmental issues in southern Africa. Recent and future impacts of human pressures on natural resources, the state of the environment in South Africa, management of critical resources, population trends, biodiversity loss, pollution, water scarcity, desertification, climate change, waste accumulation and management, environmental management tools, environmental education and environmental management legislation.

Module content:

The module conceptually integrates environmental, economic, and social components of sustainable development. Other topics covered include changing perceptions on development and environment, development paradigms, challenges of sustainable development, actors and actions in sustainable development, rural and urban livelihoods, and a Third World assessment of sustainable development in the developing world.

Module content:

Classic development frameworks. Spatial development history and legacy in South Africa. Overview of contemporary environmental legislation in South Africa. Rural development strategy. Rural and agricultural reconstruction. Land reform. Urban development and strategy. Urban spatial reconstruction. National spatial development frameworks.

Module content:

Structure of the universe, navigation of the sky, spherical geometry, optical, radio and high energy physics and sources, instruments, practical observational skills, data recording, analysis, interpretation (signal and image processing, noise, calibration, error analysis). Project: A selected project in either optical or radio astronomy, resulting in a formal report and a presentation.

Module content:

Relativistic kinematics, fundamentals of elementary particle physics, the four forces of nature and the Standard Model, beyond the Standard Model, early universe cosmology (inflation, baryogenesis), the Cosmic Microwave Background, high-energy astronomy (cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos), gravitational waves, dark matter (evidence, candidates, detection), dark energy and the Standard Cosmological Model.

Module content:

*Cannot be used as substitute for other Physics 300 modules to obtain admission to the BSc(Hons) in Physics.

A student is required to complete a project under guidance of the lecturer. The nature of the project is determined jointly by the student, lecturer and the head of department.

Module content:

*Cannot be used as substitute for other Physics 300 modules to obtain admission to the BSc(Hons) in Physics

A student is required to complete a project under guidance of the lecturer. The nature of the project is determined jointly by the student, lecturer and the head of department.

Module content:

Scale analyses and simplification of the basic equations. The geostrophic, thermal and gradient wind. The vorticity equation and divergence.

Module content:

Tendency and Omega equations. Model of a boroclinic system. Introduction to numerical models. Application in meteorological display and analysis software.

Module content:

Meterological observations data codes. Weather applications software and computing environments of meteorological analysis and weather forecasting techniques. Applications of remote sensing in weather forecasting. Aaerological diagrams. Applications of numerical weather prediction, and types of weather forecasts. Integration of information to describe the current state of the atmosphere and to predict a future state of the atmosphere.

Module content:

Topology of finite dimensional spaces: Open and closed sets, compactness, connectedness and completeness. Theorems of Bolzano-Weierstrass and Heine-Borel. Properties of continuous functions and applications. Integration theory for functions of one real variable. Sequences of functions.

Module content:

Series of functions, power series and Taylor series. Complex functions, Cauchy- Riemann equations, Cauchy's theorem and integral formulas. Laurent series, residue theorem and calculation of real integrals using residues.

Module content:

Matrix exponential function: homogeneous and non-homogeneous linear systems of differential equations. Qualitative analysis of systems: phase portraits, stability, linearisation, energy method and Liapunov's method. Introduction to chaotic systems. Application to real life problems.

Module content:

Direct methods for the numerical solution of systems of linear equations, pivoting strategies. Iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations and eigenvalue problems. Iterative methods for solving systems of nonlinear equations. Introduction to optimization. Algorithms for the considered numerical methods are derived and implemented in computer programmes. Complexity of computation is investigated. Error estimates and convergence results are proved.

Module content:

Conservation laws and modelling. Fourier analysis. Heat equation, wave equation and Laplace's equation. Solution methods including Fourier series. Energy and other qualitative methods.

Module content:

Kinematics of a continuum: Configurations, spatial and material description of motion. Conservation laws. Analysis of stress, strain and rate of deformation. Linear constitutive equations. Applications: Vibration of beams, equilibrium problems in elasticity and special cases of fluid motion.

Module content:

Axiomatic development of neutral, Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry. Using models of geometries to show that the parallel postulate is independent of the other postulates of Euclid.