X-ray generator: transformer, energy losses, rectifiers, capacitor-discharge systems, kVp and mA control, high voltage cables. Image intensifiers: design, brightness gain, coupling systems. TV camera and monitor: design, video signal, scanning. Image quality. Optics: reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, mirrors, lenses, thin lens formula, lens aberrations, fibre optics, lasers, laser camera. Computers: basic hardware, digital principles and terminology, data storage.