Science, Technology & Innovation (STI) Policy is considered to drive innovation and innovation is considered to be a core contributor toeconomic growth in all countries. As a result, STI policy is critical to the effective generation and utilisation of STI knowledge, whether this beundertaken for public good or private gain. In this module the student willbe given an introduction to, and the linkage between, Science and Technology, research and development, and innovation. This introduction will be followed by a brief history of innovation theory and how S&T links to both national and technological innovation systems. The range of policy instruments which can be used to stimulate science, technology andinnovation will then be reviewed, followed by the characterisation of the instruments which are presently adopted in South Africa. The student will then be presented with a range of frameworks to allow the analysis of different S&T policies and innovation systems, with particular reference to South Africa and other countries in the region.