Overview of pyrometallurgical process routes, types of reactions, and reactor designs. Review of relevant thermodynamic principles (equilibrium constants, Henrian and Raoultian activities and activity coefficients). Slag basicity and viscosity. Energy and reductants. Overview of pyrometallurgical separation principles (vapour-phase, solid-state and liquid-liquid routes). Examples of pyrometallurgical separation processes (ironmaking and steelmaking, sulphide smelting and converting, ferroalloys).