The nature of educational enquiry: contexts of research, research ethics, truth, rationality, subjectivity and objectivity; Quantitative and qualitative modes of enquiry, research designs and data collection techniques. Various approaches to qualitative research including case study research, historical research, ethnographic research, and action research. Basic concepts and principles of quantitative research. Statistical techniques in the educational research process. Survey methodology and questionnaire design. Classification and graphical representation of data. Descriptive measures. Statistical inference. Data-processing procedures. Parametric versus non-parametric tests. Some test statistics (e.g. F-Test and T-test). Formulating a research methodology for a limited project.