This module covers the fundamental principles of hydrometallurgy and minerals processing. In the minerals processing part of the module, students are given perspective on the scope of and functions in mineral processing, different unit operations and processing options for different deposits. Themes are comminution, classification, concentration, and solid-liquid separation. In the hydrometallurgy portion the merits and limitations of hydrometallurgy when compared with other metallurgical processes (e.g. pyrometallurgy) are considered; and different feed materials for hydrometallurgical processes; different unit processes in hydrometallurgy; fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts as used in leaching; different leach reactors and their applications; solution purification and metal recovery processes; selecting a suitable flowsheet for a given feed material to produce a final metal product are discussed.