Basic concepts of toxicology. Systemic, developmental, genetic and organ-specific toxic effects. Hallucinogenic, allergenic, teratogenic and other toxic plants. Plant constituents, contradictions and interactions. Phytotoxicity unrelated to plant constituents. Safety and efficacy issues of commonly used Phyto-drugs with emphasis on pharmaceutical applications. Practical aspects related to the manufacture of good quality plant-based medicines. Phyto-drug formulation, standardisation and aspects concerning different dosage forms.