||Classification, requirements and properties of refractory materials. Manufacturing principles. Specification and testing of refractory materials. The main refractory systems, i.e silica, aluminosilicates, alumina, magnesia, magnesia-chrome, magnesia-carbon, doloma, zircon, zirconia, silicon carbide and graphite, and their applications. Principles of ternary phase diagrams and their application in refractory systems, and interactions between slag, metal and refractory materials.