Basic knowledge of conventional manufacturing processes like casting, forming, machining and joining. Modern manufacturing of plastic products, powder metallurgy, micro-electronic manufacturing and non-traditional machining. Quality control by work-holding devices, measurement, inspection and testing and determination of process capability. Manufacturing automation, rapid prototyping and free form fabrication. Manufacturing systems design concepts like Jobshop, Flowshop, Leanshop with linked cells, Projectshop and continuous processing.