Yearbooks

Program: BScAgric (Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management)

Code Faculty Department
02133410 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Department: Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development
Credits Duration NQF level SAQA ID
Minimum duration of study: 4 jaar Totale krediete: 502 NQF level:  08 SAQA ID:  105412

Admission requirements

Important information for all prospective students for 2022

  • The admission requirements apply to students who apply for admission to the University of Pretoria with a National Senior Certificate (NSC) and Independent Examination Board (IEB) qualifications.
  • Applicants with qualifications other than the abovementioned should refer to:
    • Brochure: Undergraduate Programme Information 2022: Qualifications other than the NSC and IEB, available at click here.
  • Citizens from countries other than South Africa (applicants who are not South African citizens) should also refer to:
  • School of Tomorrow (SOT), Accelerated Christian Education (ACE) and General Education Development Test (GED): The University of Pretoria no longer accepts qualifications awarded by these institutions.
  • National Certificate (Vocational) (NCV) Level 4: The University of Pretoria may consider NCV candidates, provided they meet the exemption for bachelor’s status criteria and the programme requirements.

Transferring students

A transferring student is a student who, at the time of application for a degree programme at the University of Pretoria (UP) –

  • is a registered student at another tertiary institution, or was previously registered at another tertiary institution and did not complete the programme enrolled for at that institution, and is not currently enrolled at a tertiary institution, or has completed studies at another tertiary institution, but is not currently enrolled at a tertiary institution, or has started with tertiary studies at UP, then moved to another tertiary institution and wants to be readmitted at UP.

A transferring student will be considered for admission based on

  • an NSC or equivalent qualification with exemption to bachelor’s or diploma studies (whichever is applicable); and meeting the minimum faculty-specific subject requirements at NSC or tertiary level; or having completed a higher certificate at a tertiary institution with faculty-specific subjects/modules passed (equal to or more than 50%), as well as complying with faculty rules on admission;
  • previous academic performance (must have passed all modules registered for up to the closing date of application ) or as per faculty regulation/promotion requirements;
  • a certificate of good conduct.

Note: Students who have been dismissed at the previous institution due to poor academic performance, will not be considered for admission to UP.

Returning students

A returning student is a student who, at the time of application for a degree programme –

  • is a registered student at UP, and wants to transfer to another degree at UP, or was previously registered at UP and did not complete the programme enrolled for, and did not enrol at another tertiary institution in the meantime (including students who applied for leave of absence), or has completed studies at UP, but is not currently enrolled or was not enrolled at another tertiary institution after graduation.

A returning student will be considered for admission based on

  • an NSC or equivalent qualification with exemption to bachelor’s or diploma studies (whichever is applicable); and meeting the minimum faculty-specific subject requirements at NSC or tertiary level; or previous academic performance (should have a cumulative weighted average of at least 50% for the programme enrolled for);
  • having applied for and was granted leave of absence.

Note: Students who have been excluded/dismissed from a faculty due to poor academic performance may be considered for admission to another programme at UP.  The Admissions Committee may consider such students if they were not dismissed more than twice. Only ONE transfer between UP faculties will be allowed, and a maximum of two (2) transfers within a faculty.

Important faculty-specific information on undergraduate programmes for 2022

  • The closing date is an administrative admission guideline for non-selection programmes. Once a non-selection programme is full  and has reached the institutional targets, then that programme will be closed for further admissions, irrespective of the closing date. However, if the institutional targets have not been met by the closing date, then that programme will remain open for admissions until the institutional targets are met.
  • The following persons will be considered for admission: Candidates who have a certificate that is deemed by the University to be equivalent to the required National Senior Certificate (NSC) with university endorsement; candidates who are graduates from another tertiary institution or have been granted the status of a graduate of such an institution, and candidates who are graduates of another faculty at the University of Pretoria.
  • Life Orientation is excluded when calculating the Admission Point Score (APS).
  • Grade 11 results are used for the conditional admission of prospective students. Final admission is based on the final NSC/IEB results.

University of Pretoria website: click here

Minimum requirements

Achievement level

English Home Language or English First Additional Language

Mathematics

Physical Sciences

APS

NSC/IEB

NSC/IEB

NSC/IEB

5

5

5

32

Candidates who do not comply with the minimum admission requirements for BScAgric (Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management), may be considered for admission to the BSc – Extended programme – Biological and Agricultural Sciences, which requires an additional year of study. Students who are placed in the BSc – Extended programme – Biological and Agricultural Sciences will take a minimum of five years to complete the BScAgric (Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management) programme.

BSc – Extended Programme – Biological and Agricultural Sciences

Minimum requirements

Achievement level

English Home Language or English First Additional Language

Mathematics

Physical Sciences

APS

NSC/IEB

NSC/IEB

NSC/IEB

4

4

4

26

Note:

*The BSc – Extended programmes are not available for students who meet all the requirements for the corresponding mainstream programme.

*Please note that only students who apply in their final NSC or equivalent qualification year will be considered for admission into any of the BSc – Extended programmes.

 

 

Other programme-specific information

Compilation of curriculum
Students must register for elective modules in consultation with the head of department who must ensure that the modules do not clash on the set timetable.

The Dean may, in exceptional cases and on recommendation of the relevant head of department, approve deviations from the prescribed curriculum.

1.1    Requirements for specific modules
A candidate who:

  1. does not qualify for STK 110, must enrol for STK 113 and STK 123;
  2.  egisters for Mathematical Statistics (WST) and Statistics (STK) modules must take note that WST and STK modules, except for STK 281, may not be taken simultaneously in a programme; a student must take one and only one of the following options:
  • WST 111, WST 121, WST 212, WST 211, WST 221, WST 311, WST 312, WST 322, WST 321, and STK 353

or

  • WST 111, WST 121, WST 212, WST 211, WST 221, WST 311, WST 312, WST 322, STK320, STK353.

or

  • STK 110, STC 122, STK 210, STK 220, WST 212, STK 310, STK 320, STK 353.
  1. registers for a module presented by another faculty must take note of the timetable clashes, prerequisites for that module, subminimum required in examination papers, supplementary examinations, etc.

1.2    Fundamental modules

  1. It is compulsory for all new first-year students to satisfactorily complete the Academic orientation (UPO 102) and to take Academic information management modules (AIM 111 and AIM 121) and Language and study skills (LST 110). Please see curricula for details.
  2. Students who intend to apply for admission to MBChB or BChD in the second semester, when places become available in those programmes, may be permitted to register for up to 80 module credits and 4 core modules in the first semester during the first year provided that they obtained a final mark of no less than 70% for Grade 12 Mathematics and achieved an APS of 34 or more in the NSC.

Transitional measures

Due to a revision to the curriculum, students who were in their first year in 2021 are advised to consult the 2022 yearbook for the second, third and final years' curriculum they will follow. The first year curriculum had already been revised in the 2021 publication. 

Promotion to next study year

A student will be promoted to the following year of study if he or she passed 100 credits of the prescribed credits for a year of study, unless the Dean on the recommendation of the relevant head of department decides otherwise. A student who does not comply with the requirements for promotion to the following year of study, retains the credit for the modules already passed and may be admitted by the Dean, on recommendation of the relevant head of department, to modules of the following year of study to a maximum of 48 credits, provided that it will fit in with both the lecture and examination timetable.

Minimum krediete: 131

Fundamental = 14
Core = 117

Additional information:  Students who do not qualify for STK 110 or who may be at risk of not achieving 60% for STK 110 in their second year, must register for STK 113 and STK 123 in their first year.

Fundamental modules

Core modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    Simple statistical analysis: Data collection and analysis: Samples, tabulation, graphical representation, describing location, spread and skewness. Introductory probability and distribution theory. Sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Statistical inference: Basic principles, estimation and testing in the one- and two-sample cases (parametric and non-parametric). Introduction to experimental design. One- and twoway designs, randomised blocks. Multiple statistical analysis: Bivariate data sets: Curve fitting (linear and non-linear), growth curves. Statistical inference in the simple regression case. Categorical analysis: Testing goodness of fit and contingency tables. Multiple regression and correlation: Fitting and testing of models. Residual analysis. Computer literacy: Use of computer packages in data analysis and report writing.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Botanical principles of structure and function; diversity of plants; introductory plant systematics and evolution; role of plants in agriculture and food security; principles and applications of plant biotechnology; economical and valuable medicinal products derived from plants; basic principles of plant ecology and their application in conservation and biodiversity management.
    This content aligns with the United Nation's Sustainable Debelopment Goals of No Poverty, Good Health and Well-being, Climate Action, Responsible Consumption and Production, and Life on Land.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and chemical bonding using the VSEOR model. Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds. Classification of reactions: precipitation, acid-base, redox reactions and gas-forming reactions. Mole concept and stoichiometric calculations concerning chemical formulas and chemical reactions. Principles of reactivity: energy and chemical reactions. Physical behaviour gases, liquids, solids and solutions and the role of intermolecular forces. Rate of reactions: Introduction to chemical kinetics.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    This module deals with the core principles of economics. A distinction between macroeconomics and microeconomics is made. A discussion of the market system and circular flow of goods, services and money is followed by a section dealing with microeconomic principles, including demand and supply analysis, consumer behaviour and utility maximisation, production and the costs thereof, and the different market models and firm behaviour. Labour market institutions and issues, wage determination, as well as income inequality and poverty are also addressed. A section of money, banking, interest rates and monetary policy concludes the course.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    This module deals with the core principles of economics, especially macroeconomic measurement the private and public sectors of the South African economy receive attention, while basic macroeconomic relationships and the measurement of domestic output and national income are discussed. Aggregate demand and supply analysis stands core to this course which is also used to introduce students to the analysis of economic growth, unemployment and inflation. The microeconomics of government is addressed in a separate section, followed by a section on international economics, focusing on international trade, exchange rates and the balance of payments. The economics of developing countries and South Africa in the global economy conclude the course.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    The nature and function of accounting; the development of accounting; financial position; financial result; the recording process; processing of accounting data; treatment of VAT; elementary income statement and balance sheet; flow of documents; accounting systems; introduction to internal control and internal control measures; bank reconciliations; control accounts; adjustments; financial statements of a sole proprietorship; the accounting framework.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Budgeting, payroll accounting, taxation – income tax and an introduction to other types of taxes, credit and the new Credit Act, insurance, accounting for inventories (focus on inventory and the accounting entries, not calculations), interpretation of financial statements.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Computer processing of accounting information.

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  • Module-inhoud:

     Introduction to the molecular structure and function of the cell. Basic chemistry of the cell. Structure and composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ultrastructure and function of cellular organelles, membranes and the cytoskeleton. General principles of energy, enzymes and cell metabolism. Selected processes, e.g. glycolysis, respiration and/or photosynthesis. Introduction to molecular genetics: DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation. Cell growth and cell division.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    *Students will not be credited for more than one of the following modules for their degree: WTW 134, WTW 165, WTW 114, WTW 158. WTW 134 does not lead to admission to Mathematics at 200 level and is intended for students who require Mathematics at 100 level only. WTW 134 is offered as WTW 165 in the second semester only to students who have applied in the first semester of the current year for the approximately 65 MBChB, or the 5-6 BChD places becoming available in the second semester and who were therefore enrolled for MGW 112 in the first semester of the current year. 
    Functions, derivatives, interpretation of the derivative, rules of differentiation, applications of differentiation, integration, interpretation of the definite integral, applications of integration. Matrices, solutions of systems of equations. All topics are studied in the context of applications.

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Minimum krediete: 129

Core = 109
Elective = at least 20

Core modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    Analysis of variance: Multi-way classification. Testing of model assumptions, graphics. Multiple comparisons. Fixed, stochastic and mixed effect models. Block experiments. Estimation of effects. Experimental design: Principles of experimental design. Factorial experiments: Confounding, single degree of freedom approach, hierarchical classification. Balanced and unbalanced designs. Split-plot designs. Analysis of covariance. Computer literacy: Writing and interpretation of computer programmes. Report writing.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Microeconomics
    Microeconomic insight is provided into: consumer and producer theory, general microeconomic equilibrium, Pareto-optimality and optimality of the price mechanism, welfare economics, market forms and the production structure of South Africa. Statistic and econometric analysis of microeconomic issues.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Microeconomics
    From general equilibrium and economic welfare to uncertainty and asymmetric information. In this module we apply the principles learned in EKN 224 on the world around us by looking at the microeconomic principles of labour and capital markets, as well as reasons why the free market system could fail. We touch on the government’s role in market failures. The course includes topics of the mathematical and econometric analysis of microeconomic issues.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Origin and development of soil, weathering and soil formation processes. Profile differentiation and morphology. Physical characteristics: texture, structure, soil water, atmosphere and temperature. Chemical characteristics: clay minerals, ion exchange, pH, buffer action, soil acidification and salinisation of soil. Soil fertility and fertilisation. Soil classification. Practical work: Laboratory evaluation of simple soil characteristics. Field practicals on soil formation in the Pretoria area.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Introduction to the world of agricultural economics: where to find practising agricultural economics services, overview of South African Agricultural Economy, scope of agricultural economics. Introduction to consumption and demand: utility theory, indifference curves, the budget constraint, consumer equilibrium, the law of demand, consumer surplus, tastes and preferences, and measurement and interpretation of elasticities. Introduction to production and supply: condition for perfect competition, classification of inputs, important production relationships, assessing short-run business costs, economics of short-run decisions. Isoquants, iso-cost line, least cost combination of inputs, long-run expansion of inputs, and economics of business expansion, production possibility frontier, iso-revenue line and profit maximising combination of products. Introduction to market equilibrium and product prices: market equilibrium in a perfectly competitive market, total economic surplus, changes in welfare, adjustments to market equilibrium, market structure characteristics, market equilibrium in a imperfectly competitive market, government regulatory measures. Introduction to financial management in agriculture: Farm management and agricultural finance, farm management information; analysis and interpretation of farm financial statements; risk and farm planning. Budgets: partial, break-even, enterprise, total, cash flow and capital budgets. Elements of business plan, marketing planning and price risk. Financial structuring and sources of finance for farm business. Time value of money.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    The agribusiness system; the agricultural value chain, the unique characteristics of agricultural products; marketing functions and costs; historical evolution of agricultural marketing in South Africa. The marketing environment. Consumer behaviour and consumer trends. Introduction to supply and demand analysis. Developing a marketing plan and strategies for agricultural commodities; market analysis; product management; distribution channels for agricultural commodities, the agricultural supply chain. Introduction to the agricultural futures market. Marketing in the 21st century. Online marketing, social media. Market structure.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Influence of climate on cropping systems in South Africa. The surface energy balance. Hydrological cycles and the soil water balance. Sustainable crop production. Simple radiation and water limited models. Potential yield, target yield and maximum economic yield. Crop nutrition and fertiliser management. Principles of soil cultivation and conservation. Climate change and crop production – mitigation and adaptation.

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Elective modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    Introduces basic concepts and interrelationships required to understand our atmosphere, with a strong focus on an introduction to weather and climate. A key component of the course is an introduction to climate change, including the science of climate change, introducing climate change projections, and climate change impacts. A key focus of the second part of the course will be climate change implications for the attainment of SDGs and Aichi targets on the African continent, under a range of plausible scenarios.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Note: Enrolment is limited. Preference will be given based on choice of majors. Students should enquire at the department if they wish to register for the module, but are unable to do so.
    *GIS 221 does not lead to admission to any module at 300 level.
    Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), theoretical concepts and applications of GIS. The focus will be on the GIS process of data input, data analysis, data output and associated technologies.This module teaches students to use GIS as a tool. Examples used throughout the course are drawn from South African case studies.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Database design: the relational model, structured query language (SQL), entity relationship modelling, normalisation, database development life cycle; practical introduction to database design. Databases: advanced entity relationship modelling and normalisation, object-oriented databases, database development life cycle, advanced practical database design.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    A brief perspective on the South African livestock industry with reference to the role of Sustainable development goals (SDGs) in a Southern African context. South African biomes in which animal production is practised. Animal ecological factors that influence regional classification. Introduction to adaptation physiology with reference to origin and domestication of farm and companion animals. Livestock species, breed development and breed characterisation. Basic principles of animal breeding and genetics, animal nutrition. Practical work includes identification and classification of different breeds of livestock.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Introduction to the concepts of animal production systems in South African production environments. Principles and requirements for extensive, semi-intensive and intensive livestock production with reference to large- and small stock, poultry and pigs. Principles of communal farming systems in Southern Africa. Game management systems with reference to conservation and game farming. The role of the human in livestock production systems and sustainable production.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Introductory machine learning concepts. Data base design and use. Data preparation and extraction. Statistical modelling using data base structures. Statistical concepts are demonstrated and interpreted through practical coding and simulation within a data science framework.

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Minimum krediete: 120

Core = 76
Elective = at least 44

Core modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    Public finance
    Role of government in the economy. Welfare economics and theory of optimality. Ways of correcting market failures. Government expenditure theories, models and programmes. Government revenue. Models on taxation, effects of taxation on the economy. Assessment of taxation from an optimality and efficiency point of view. South African perspective on public finance.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Economic analyses
    Identification, collection and interpretation process of relevant economic data; the national accounts (i.e. income and production accounts, the national financial account, the balance of payments and input-output tables); economic growth; inflation; employment, unemployment, wages, productivity and income distribution; business cycles; financial indicators; fiscal indicators; social indicators; international comparisons; relationships between economic time series - regression analysis; long-term future studies and scenario analysis; overall assessment of the South African economy from 1994 onwards.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Historical evolution of South African agricultural policy. Agriculture and the state (communicating the legislative process in detail): reasons for government intervention (government and stakeholder engagement). Theoretical aspects of agricultural policy. Introduction to agricultural policy analysis. Welfare principles, pareto optimality. Macroeconomic policy and the agricultural sector. International agricultural trade (including inter-governmental communication).

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  • Module-inhoud:

    The modern food and agribusiness system. Key drivers in the global context. Whole farm planning including business planning, financial analysis and financial modelling, capital acquisition and creditworthiness, time value of money and the investment decision, Decision making in agriculture under risk and uncertain cirmumstances and risk management. Operational and strategic management. Business plan and scenario planning assignments.

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Elective modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    The theoretical basis of Labour Relations
    In this section the basic concepts, historical context and theoretical approaches to the field of labour relations will be discussed. The institutional framework in which labour relations operates, will be addressed with particular emphasis on the structural mechanisms and institutional processes. The service relationship that forms the basis of labour relations practices, will also be analysed.
    Labour Relations practice
    In this section students are taught the conceptual and practical skills related to practice aspects such as handling of grievances, disciplining, retrenchments, collective bargaining, industrial action and dispute resolution.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Botanical characteristics, classification, growth requirements, production practices and utilization of crops rich in starch, oil, sugar and protein, fibre crops, narcotic and medicinal plants. The use of conservation agriculture (CA) in field crop production is becoming ever increasingly important, especially since it is directly related to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 (food), 6 (water), 7 (energy) 13 (climate) and 15 (soil). During the semester applicable AC and SDG examples will be highlighted. Practicals will consist out of a trial on the experimental farm and visits to research institutions and producers.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    The organised nursery industry in South Africa. Principles: seed production; seed germination; rooting of cuttings; budding and grafting; propagation using specialised organs; micro propagation (tissue culturing). Practices: Greenhouse construction, lighting in the nursery; cooling and heating; soil-based and soil-less growing media; container types; irrigation and fertilisation; growth manipulation; pest and disease management. Management, economic and marketing aspects of a typical nursery operation. Students will get hands-on experience and will visit nurseries.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Quantitative description and measurement of soil water content and potential as well as saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Modelling water flow in soil (Darcy’s law, Richards's equation). Infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, runoff and percolation. Irrigation in South Africa. Modelling and managing the soil water balance. Plant water consumption and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Irrigation scheduling (soil, plant and atmosphere approaches). Managing poor quality water. Irrigation systems. The module includes a field trip to an irrigation scheme.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the productivity of different strata and components of natural pastures. This will enable the student to advise users, with the necessary motivation, on the appropriate use of these strata and components and will form a basis for further research on this system. The principles of veld management s and the influence of management practices on sustainable animal production from natural pastures. This will enable the student to advise users on veld management and veld management principles. It will also form a basis for further research on veld management.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    The establishment and use of planted pastures species and fodder crops and the
    conservation of fodder. This will enable students to advise users on establishment and utilization of planted pastures species as well as farmers on the production,
    conservation and optimum use of fodder. This will also form a basis for further research on planted pastures.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    This module is intended to provide students with the skills and knowledge that are essential for the conservation of biodiversity. The module focuses on conservation theory and practice (e.g. endangered species, habitat loss, overexploitation, climate change), and has a practical component. In addition, students will generate a multi-media project designed to inform the general public about a key conservation issue.Over the course of the module, students will be exposed to a number of issues that link directly to sustainable development goals Clean Water and Sanitation, Affordable and Clean Energy, Sustainable Cities and Communities, Responsible Consumption and Production, Climate Action, Life Below Water & Life on Land, and gain valuable theoretical and practical experience in the field of conservation biology. 

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Minimum krediete: 122

Core = 77
Elective = at least 45

Core modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    Challenges and objectives of development, including the issues of nderdevelopment, hunger, poverty and inequalities. Definitions of development, conomic development, growth, rural development and agricultural development. Overview and evolution of concepts and theories of agriculture and rural development. Overview of past and emerging ideas to accelerate development of rural economic sectors, including agricultural innovation, technology innovation, evelopment pathways. The roles of agriculture and structural transformation in development and options for the development of small-scale agriculture. ntroduction to institutions and organisations in agriculture and rural development. he importance of agriculture in the rural economy (agro-industries, agribusiness), the rural non-farm economy, rural infrastructure, rural finance, human capital (health and education) and basic services (water, electricity & sanitation) in rural
    development. Special applications integrated into the content, including: climate hange, migration, conflict, food security, gender, land reform and sustainability (SDG, Africa’s Agenda 2063, National Development Plans). Case study: Analysis of a practical agribusiness problem related to rural development. 

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  • Module-inhoud:

    After providing an appropriate background in the theoretical concepts of demand (theory of the consumer) and supply (theory of the firm) these basics will be applied in the generation of optimization techniques such as Lagrange optimization and linear programming. The work will cover the identification of supply and demand shifters as well as the elasticities, flexibilities, and impact multipliers. The theory will underpin the development of econometric simulation models for selected agricultural sectors. Practical experience in the formulation of these models will be attained from practical sessions.  

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  • Module-inhoud:

    This course covers data management, data exploration and analytical techniques commonly used for agricultural market analysis within a data science framework. It considers best practices in working with secondary data and covers regression analysis and inference testing as a means to estimate causal relationships between variables. Other analytical techniques will be covered, including cluster analysis. Analytical concepts will be applied and interpreted through practical estimation and simulation.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Research project and case study of an issue relevant to agricultural economics. The research project should address an important contemporary agricultural economics problem or challenge and contribute towards the solution thereof. 

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Elective modules

  • Module-inhoud:

    Derivative instruments in agriculture: To prepare students for taking the SAFEX Agricultural Markets Division brokerage exam. Giving an in-depth knowledge on the importance of hedging. Giving an in-depth knowledge on designing and implementation of low/zero risk hedging strategies. Introduction to the mathematics of portfolio management and mathematical modelling of derivatives. Working knowledge of the mathematical relationships in the management of a hedged portfolio. Working knowledge on the applicable software for managing derivative portfolios. Introduction into the management of option portfolios. To expand the thinking on the uses of derivatives, by also dealing with the hedging of diesel cost, interest rates and weather events.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    This module reviews the origins and evolution of natural and environmental resource economics and its present-day main paradigms. Sources of externalities and causes of environmental degradation are examined. An introduction to the concepts and methods backing the design and implementation of environmental policies are provided. Economic valuation of natural and environmental resources is introduced.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    Introduction the food system, food system dynamics, marketing and the food value chain, global food marketing trends, marketing strategies and plans, consumer behaviour and marketing research, collecting information, forecasting demand, conducting market research, marketing of agricultural products, risk in agricultural commodity marketing, connecting with customers, building strong brands, creating value, food franchising. food quality, labelling and food safety, intellectual property and geographical indicators, delivering value, supply chain management, contract growing, conducting marketing responsibility for long-term success, communicating value. Marketing in the 21st century, Food system essay, Market research project.

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  • Module-inhoud:

    WTO/GATT-1994 and agricultural related Agreements and Understandings. egionalism and trade blocks. International trade and economic development. South Africa's agricultural trade policy. Involvement in bilateral and plurilateral agreements. Application of international market analysis tools. International trade and tariff statistics, trade modelling, theory and familiarity in international and regional databases. The module covers the basic tools to understand what determines the flow of goods across countries, i.e. international trade, and applications to a number of topics of current interest, including the debate on globalisation, free trade agreements, the SA Current account and the medium run prospects for exchange rates. One summative practical assignment. 

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The regulations and rules for the degrees published here are subject to change and may be amended after the publication of this information.

The General Academic Regulations (G Regulations) and General Student Rules apply to all faculties and registered students of the University, as well as all prospective students who have accepted an offer of a place at the University of Pretoria. On registering for a programme, the student bears the responsibility of ensuring that they familiarise themselves with the General Academic Regulations applicable to their registration, as well as the relevant faculty-specific and programme-specific regulations and information as stipulated in the relevant yearbook. Ignorance concerning these regulations will not be accepted as an excuse for any transgression, or basis for an exception to any of the aforementioned regulations.

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