Mean state, major patterns of atmospheric variability in the mid-latitudes and polar regions. Air masses. Synoptic scale cold, warm, occluded and quasistationary fronts, frontogenesis. Mid-latitude depressions, Norwegian cyclone model, conveyor belts. Basic cyclone model, Shapiro-Keyser model hybrid models, cyclogenesis. Polar weather systems; katabatic winds, barrier winds, cold-air damming, polar lows. Jet stream and jet streaks. Extreme weather and impacts. Conceptual models.