Challenges and objectives of development, including the issues of underdevelopment, hunger, poverty and inequalities. Definitions of development, economic development, growth, rural development and agricultural development. Overview and evolution of concepts and theories of agriculture and rural development. Overview of past and emerging ideas to accelerate development of rural economic sectors, including agricultural innovation, technology innovation, development pathways. The roles of agriculture and structural transformation in development and options for the development of small-scale agriculture. Introduction to institutions and organisations in agriculture and rural development. The importance of agriculture in the rural economy (agro-industries, agribusiness), the rural non-farm economy, rural infrastructure, rural finance, human capital (health and education) and basic services (water, electricity & sanitation) in rural development. Special applications integrated into the content, including: climate change, migration, conflict, food security, gender, land reform and sustainability (SDG, Africa’s Agenda 2063, National Development Plans). Case study: Analysis of a practical agricultural and rural development problem.