Gas laws. Virtual temperature. The hydrostatic and hypsometric equations. Dry adiabatic processes. The first law of thermodynamics. Latent heat. Stabilities and instabilities. Dry adiabatic temperature lapse rate. Potential temperature. Inversion layers. Atmospheric moisture and saturated-adiabatic processes. Vapour pressure. Saturation and condensation. Dew and frost point. Relative humidity. Saturated adiabatic temperature lapse rate. Cloud and rain formation. The second law of thermodynamics
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