The production potential and quality of pastures as influenced by botanical composition, vegetation cover, livestock grazing and browsing potential, soil chemical, physical and biological conditions in addition to other important environmental processes are addressed. Pasture selection for different purposes and the importance of pasture management requirements within a planned livestock fodder flow system are taught. Monitoring pastures (both natural and cultivated) in different biomes of Southern Africa, through different assessment techniques to understand the health, production potential and quality thereof is explained. The different utilisation methods of pastures, as influenced by the livestock factor and their effects on the pastures regrowth potential, in addition to soil quality aspects are important principles that determine the value of pastures. The evaluation of grasses and other vegetation types in terms of adaptation, acceptability and adaptability to environmental and management conditions are important to an integrated and adaptive pasture and livestock production system.