Overview of the origin, role, development of extension; Philosophy and principles of extension. International approaches to extension delivery: Training and Visit, Farming system development, Project approach, Farmer Field Schools, Participatory Extension and Participatory Technology Development. Extension's role in sustainable agriculture development; Adult learning principles, privatizing and outsourcing of agricultural extension; the role of non-governmental organisations (NGO's) in extension delivery. Decentralisation of extension. Participation and coordination of stakeholders in the planning of linkages between extension, research and the farming community.