Functional anatomy, growth and development of tissues and organ systems. The underlying physiological processes in growth and development. Pre- and postnatal growth and factors which determine growth rate: growth curves, stimulants of growth, age, nutrition, breed, sex. Changes during maturation, reproduction, the post-partum period and lactation. Ageing and tissue changes with erosion diseases. The influence of hormones, production and reproduction on conformation and a critical evaluation of assessment of animals for functional efficiency.