In this module you will develop the skills required to analyse the equilibria of pyrometallurgical processes. Solving such a problem requires skills in thermodynamic analysis, and knowledge of the typical processes (and the conditions within these processes) which are used to extract and refine metals like iron (steel), copper, titanium, chromium, manganese, and aluminium. The aim is to enable you to analyse a current or proposed process with regards to feasibility, and to propose processing conditions (e.g. temperature, slag composition) which will achieve the required equilibrium state. This also applies to refractory systems, where the primary aim will be to evaluate whether a given refractory material is suitable for a given application, or the impact of certain impurities on the refractory material.