Dr Celeste Combrinck and Ms Nangamso Mtsatse argued that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can enhance teaching and learning and contribute to the development of 21st century skills. But the availability and usage of technology for primary school learning in South Africa remains limited and problematic. Dr Combrinck, from the Science, Mathematics and Technology Education department (SMTE), and Ms Mtsatse, a doctoral candidate from the University of Stellenbosch made a presentation on usage and availability of ICT in primary schools at the Research on Socio-Economic Policy (RESEP) Conference. The University of Stellenbosch held its annual RESEP Conference on Quantitative Education Research on 6 and 7 September 2018. The presentation concluded that poverty, historical disadvantage and gender gaps remain prevalent and therefore the majority of SA learners will not have access to ICT resources or mastering paper-based reading skills.